Policy Area: Military

HARTS in North Koreas
James Dennis, 1986

Unless you have been assigned to Korea, you probably have never heard of a Hardened Artillery Site (HARTS). This is partially due to the US Army's concentration on European-style maneuver warfare and partially because the HARTS are a North Korean peculiarity, developed in reaction to their experiences during the Korean Conflict, which was fought much like World War I. During that time, the UN Command gave the Chinese and North Koreans a graduate course on what 105mm, 155mm and 203mm artillery and Close Air Support (CAS) could do to a bunker system or trench line. From this, the North learned what measures were needed to protect their forces and have used this knowledge and the intervening time to prepare.

The North Koreans have put in a coast-to-coast system to protect the military hardware on which they have spent so much money. HARTS represent only one part of a protective system which makes maximum use of their rugged terrain. Other aspects of the systen include: 1. airfields where the airplanes are parked under mountains; 2. radar sites in elevator shafts that can be raised up like a submarine periscope; 3. submarine and missile patrol boat bases in tunnels hewn in rock; 4. tunnels a kilometer or more in length for storing vehicles and supplies, or to hide the population of a nearby city.

This article will examine only the HARTS or Hardened Artillery Sites which are an integral part of the North Korean defensive structure. Such sites will be close enough to the DMZ to allow two-thirds of the artillery's range to fall in South Korea. The first area of HARTS is behind the first belt. Additional HARTS are located behind the second defensive belt and so on. These rearward HARTS are used to store supplies and in time of, war or crisis, as as safe havens for second echelon forces. In the western DMZ to Central DMZ, it has been estimated that there are between 200-500 HARTS.

Hardened Artillery Sites are of several types, some more common than others. Near the DMZ can be found a variety of firing pits, bunkers or berms that hold mortars, field artillery, anti-tank guns, multiple rocket launchers, etc. Some are always occupied, while others seem to be used only during times of increased tension. Artillery caves (Fig 1) are scattered chroughout the northern side of the DMZ, depending on the terrain. These may be real caves, modified to hold artillery, or man-made tunnels. (The following illustrates some of the positions identified; these could also be found in other areas:)

In the vicinity of KAESONG (Panmunjon) there are the "Y" type bunkers (Fig 2). These consist of precast concrete, covered by earth. From these bunkers the North could fire at targets in the Western Corridor, the Kimpo Peninsula and Gangwha Island. It is here that Communist artillery is located which can hit the South Korean capital, Seoul. (The reason for "Y" bunkers is to compensate for the way the mountains run, which does not match offensive or defensive contingencies.)

In the CHORWAN Corridor (Iron Triangle for Korean War vets) the North has put in earth-covered bunkers, probably of precast croncrete (Fig 3).

A Hardened Artillery Site is a fortified battery fighting position (in Viet Nam we called them fire bases). Within the site will be emplacements for guns, shelters for personnel, ammunition and the fire direction center (FdC), trenches for self defense and communication, cover for prime movers, and in wartime, protective wire and mixed minefields. A gun emplacement will have a gun platform, crew cover, ammunition recesses, ramps and connecting passages and breastworks.

A Hardened Artillery Site will be oriented so that all guns are able to strike targets in its battery's sector of fire. There is a school of thought which feels that the guns must be placed on the pad outside the shelter for firing. This would, of course, depend on how that site was located and made. All that is required to shoot a conventional artillery piece from a cave or bunker is to have the muzzle near enough the door so the round won't strike the roof on the way out and the blast and noise goes out the door. The guns the North makes have gun shields to protect the crew from small arms fire and blast. A crew can position the gun with the wheels just on the inside of the entrance, with the muzzle out of the door. This would allow most of the gun's elevation to be used.

In front of each position will be a pad with bermed positions for out of battery missions. I will discuss how this emplacement is constructed later. The pad will probably be a rolled earth and cement mixture and will be sloped to allow for drainage. This would allow heavy trucks to come from the front without tearing the pad up.

The entrances of a cave, tunnel or bunker will be of reinforced concrete pillars and beams on which doors are hung. Retaining walls on either side and above the entrance would stabilize the slope and prevent being buried by a near miss.

Doors would be used to keep out the elements and prying eyes in peacetime; in wartime they would provide protection from blast or fragments. To protect against blast or fragments, the doors would have to be at least 10mm of steel. The Armed Forces Journal, Aug 84, says they are of concrete. The doors could be steel on one side and concrete on the other. To give more protection from blast, radiation or shaped charges, a steel box could be welded to the interior of the door and filled with gravel, sand or concrete. Depending on the weight, the doors could be hinged or sliding. How the doors are constructed would determine how they are hung. Dutch doors are also a possibility as they could give the crew some protection. An anti-radiation/anti-fragmentation curtain could be hung inside the doors to provide protection when the doors are open.

What overhead cover a HARTS has will depend on what type of position it is in. A cave or tunnel will have a mountain or hill on top of it. A bunker will have sandwiched layers of earth/stone. Most of the mountains in Korea are granite, so the tunnels are similar to those found in Vermont or the Rocky Mountains. If you go to Korea, you could visit Tunnel #3 near Panmonjon (see your ROK Liaison Officer or International Tours and Travel) or go to Chinese Tunnel near the St. Barbara Impact Area. Both are unlined and constructed by hand. The roof of a cave or tunnel will be reinforced to prevent the ceiling from spalling by direct hits.

A bunker is usually covered with several layers of earth. The first 5 cm is probably sod with grass planted on it. The next layer will be 30-60 cm (1-2 ft) of 15-20 cm granite stones. This burster layer will be thick and rigid enough to detonate or deflect delayed fuse shells up to 155mm or 203mm. The remaining layers will be 30-60 cm of uncompacted earth, a waterproof layer, and a dust layer of timbers. Supporting this will be concrete/steel pillars and beams. The roof and walls will be of precast concrete 10-20 cm thick. The North Koreans may hedge their bets and make these layers thicker or put in a second burster layer.

The interiors of caves, tunnels or bunkers will be similar. There will be an area large enough for the gun, with trails spread, and the gun crew to work (5×7 meters) and a high trajectory pit will be dug below the guns breach. There will be reference or aiming marks on the walls for use in fire control. Near the gun will be spaces to store ammunition and to do the work of setting fuses. These chambers will vary in size. A bunker will have an advantage over a cave in getting rid of expended shell cases and unused powder charges, since these could be thrown out the back or placed in conveniently dug pits a safe distance away (all North Korean guns up to 152mm use semi-fixed ammo). In the cave they would have to put this debris in special chambers, probably protected by blast walls and doors. There may even be a place for the crew to rest. A cave or tunnel would have to be ventilated and lighted, and needs a drainage system because of water seepage or underground springs. A heating system would also have to be put in during the winter. It would have to have no open flames; therefore, it would probably be an Ondal system (charcoal stoves).

Bunkers and caves will be interconnected by tunnels or trenches. Caves and tunnels will have blast walls to prevent sympathetic explosions. Communication to the guns and the fire direction center (FPC) will be via landline (wire telephone). The EPC could be in its own bunker or within the cave/tunnel complex. Prime movers will be located in a protected area approximately 1 km from the complex and dug in.

Pit and berm type HARTS are designed to accomodate all types of artillery weapons, mortars, MRLs and guns. They differ by type of weapon system and whether the weapon is emplaced above or below the grounds natural surface. The major consideration is drainage; the months June-September are the monsoon season, and with rains of 25-30 inches a month, it is not unusual to see 1-2 inches an hour.

An 82mm or 120mm mortar emplacement will consist of a circular pit 2.4 meters in diameter and 1 meter deep. On the left side of the gun will be a personnel trench 3 meters long, .5 meters wide and 1.8 meters deep. This will connect to a covered bunker 5 meters × 1.5 meters × 2 meters deep, with 1.5 meters of overhead cover. The ammunition trench, on the right side of the gun, will be 3 meters long × .5 meter wide and 2 meters deep with 1-2 niches, l×l meter × 1.6 meters deep. Trenches will have a berm .5-1 meter high. The sides will be reinforced by planks, brush fascines or sandbags. (Volume to be excavated 29 meters3, 38 man hours.)

An artillery emplacement (122mm, 130mm, 152mm) gun platform will be 7.5 meters long × 6 meters wide × 1 meter deep, with a high-trajectory pit below the gun breach. A ramp 3 meters wide × 3.5 meters long will lead into the emplacement. A berm 1 meter high × 2 meters wide, reinforced by brush, wire, etc., to eliminate dust, will surround the emplacement. On the left of the gun will be the ammunition platform 2×1.4 meters2 which will hold 40 rounds. An ammunition trench 3×.5×2 meters deep will be on the left. Ammunition niches will hold the rest of the ammunition (80+ rounds). A personnel trench similar to the mortar emplacement will be on the right. (Vol 99 meters3, 68 man hours.)

Figure 1 Artillery Caves north of DMZ

Figure 2 Precast concrete artillery positions

Multiple rocket launcher (MRL) emplacements are unique in that the jet exhaust may demolish slopes and ramps when a volley is fired. For MRL vehicle emplacement, the excavated area is 3.5 meters wide × 6.5 meters long, with a 6 meter long entry ramp. The front of the emplacement will be sloped so that in case the vehicle won't start on its own, a hand crank can be used. The emplacement is 1.6 meters deep with a berm 1.3 meters high. A trailer MRL (107mm) will be of the same width but probably only 3 meters long, with a shorter ramp. (Volume 73 meters3, 65 man hours.)

As you have probably noticed, the volume of dirt excavated and man hours required to dig the emplacement have been shown. This is because berm or pit HARTS will be needed as the North Korean army moves south. Who is going to dig them? Why the crew, of course. They will get help from their prime movers, the ATT, ATS, ATL and ATP; one per battery will have a dozer blade attached. There will also be a lot of people to "volunteer", possibly at gunpoint.

A Hardened Artillery Site is not just a gun emplasement, it is also a place for the crew to live. Permanently occupied sites will probably have barracks, a mess hall, a latrine/bathhouse, a recreation/clsssroom and outdoor recreation facilities. There may be a small motorpool or maintenance area. A HARTS in or near a box canyon may have a rifle range. The buildings will be one story and constructed of cement bricks with a cement stucco. The roofs will be corrogated metal or fiber tile. Inside the buildings will be a raised wooden floor covered with linoleum, with an Ondal heating system underneath. Furniture will be at a minimum; everything a North Korean private owns, including his bed, fits in his rucksack and Koreans sit on the floor. The latrine facilities will be typically oriental.

Cement pingpong tables and a basketball court, may be located outside. There will probably be a garden on the compound and someplace to store the kimchee. Contingency HARTS will be more spartan.

The number of gun emplacements and men will depend on the weapon system. Mortars and 122mm howitzer batteries generally have 6 guns, while 122mm gun (D-74), 130mm gun, and 152mm gun howitzer batteries have 4 guns. There are between 60 and 70 men to crew the battery.

In or near the HARTS are ammunition storage bunkers. Each gun emplacement will have 1-4 units of fire stored (120 rounds per gun = 1 unit of fire). Some people guess there may be enough ammunition stored to last 30-90 days. The first day's firing will be 4 units of fire, with 2 units for the next 2 days, by which time they intend to move south. A defensive battle would use 3 units of fire per day. Caves and tunnels would store this ammo deep in the mountain. Bunkers and pits would need additional bunkers or a nearby cave/tunnel, since they must store a lot of ammunition.

Some Hardened Artillery Sites will have to be built or are being built or modified to handle self-propelled (SP) artillery. The North Koreans have been producing 122mm, 130mm, and 152mm SP artillery for a number of years. The chassis on which they are built are subject to debate, but chassis the North Koreans have available are the T-34, T-55, T-62, PT-76, K-61, M1067 Chinese Type (K-63) APC, and several artillery tractors. The guns are mounted similarly to the US M-ll0 8-inch howitzer and offer no protection for the crew. How the North Koreans intend to use SP artillery is unclear. They may put them in HARTS and shoot them like towed guns. They also may shift them around to avoid counter-fire, but the North probably does not have the C3 or road net to do that effectively. If employed in a HARTS, excavation needed will be significant.

Other measures designed to protect Hardened Artillery Sites include their positioning, massed fires, air defense and rear area protection. The preferred place to put an artillery battery is on a reverse slope. This keeps it out of direct observation and fires and can help to confuse flash and sound units. Another benefit is a reverse slope can help to disrupt an air attack. A good reverse slope could be a 5-20 meter depression between the hill and mountains. Who is on the forward slope?: regular units awaiting to be committed, recently activated reserves and air defense units.

Some people guess that the North Koreans will attempt to have in the vicinity of 500 artillery tubes per kilometer of breakthrough frontage. This gives the potential of staggering volume in terms of rounds per minute fired. This could saturate the detection capability of countermortar/battery radars. If friendly radars can target even 10% of such a volume, the fire direction centers, manual and automated, could easily be overloaded. To further complicate things, Allied artillery command and control centers are also targeted for action by long range artillery, jamming and ranger/commandos.

With so much invested in these artillery positions, it makes sense that the North has designed measures to protect them against air and ground threats which could neutralize them. They no doubt recall the havoc which US air power caused during the Korean Conflict, and most certainly have paid attention to the significant damage that Israeli air has caused in the Middle East. While the North will probably attempt to destroy US and ROK aircraft on the ground, they have established an extensive air defense system, consisting of SA2s, AD guns, and counter-air aircraft to handle those which they know will get airborne.

Point ADA or AAA defense for the HARTS will be provided by several ZPU-2/4 heavy anti-aircraft machine gun (HAAMG) companies. These guns, crewed by local militia women, will be placed on the high ground along an air avenue of approach, 1-2km from the HARTS. Also available is the SA-7, but the exact distribution is unclear. Corps and division assets, both 37mm and 57mm, will provide coverage for clusters of HARTS. While these weapons are relatively old, they can still shoot down a plane or helicopter, or cause the pilot to abort his mission.

Since the North is probably concerned with the threat which ground forces injected into its rear area could pose, it can be assumed that security for the HARTS will be provided by regular, militia, and reserve units located in the rear. Units whose missions might reguire that they fight to the rear of forward deployed North Korean forces should be aware of what they may face.

Obviously, available for rear area protection are uncommitted divisions and brigades. They will be in assembly areas, tactically dispersed and conducting local patrolling. These units, while not charged with rear area protection, could respond rather quickly to a penetration or raid on any rear area activity, including the HARTS. Several types of reserve units are available to assist in protecting HARTS. Reserve units are composed of men aged 18-35 who have finished their military obligations. They receive 64 hours of field training a month. They are from the same factory or village and their officers and some NCOs are full-time active duty. They could be any branch, most likely infantry, and can be totally mobilized and employed as a unit in 72 hours.

The Worker Peasant Red Militia are males aged 35-50 years and young farmers who have been exempted from military service. They get 50 hours of training a month and are armed with AKs, light machineguns, and RPGs. They are in 18 man platoons, 14 per battalion. They will be manning the recently evacuated trenches, patrolling the hills and providing security for critical facilities. They may be old, but they built the fortifications, their daughters and wives crew the HAAMGs, their sons are out fighting and they know the ground.

The Red Vanguard units are high school and college boys awaiting military service. They will be armed with SKSs and have adult advisors. Fifteen year old boys can be very fanatical at times, as shown in the current Iran-Iraq war and by Hitlers Werewolves. A well trained infantry unit could defeat them, but they will gain time for others to come.

Figure 3 Bunkered Caves

How ready are the reserve and militia units? Every civilian in the forward areas keeps a rucksack and helmet by the door. According to some reports weapons and ammo are already issued out, as with the Swiss and Norwegians in Europe. The Korean Workers Party calls alerts every so often and everyone goes to their appointed place. When required, they build the fortifications, and they are put on alert and man the trenches during times of tensions, i.e., large US and ROK exercises.

Their experiences in the last "war", in which they faced US Forces, predisposes the North Korean Army to the continued use of HARTS. Knowing how they plan to employ their artillery and how they plan to protect it will be necessary if we ever have to face their forces on a field of battle.

RED THRUST NOTE: While the types of positions described are known to exist through unclassified sources, in many cases, the specific dimensions and construction details are not. For this reason, the exact size and construction details cited are often the authors estimate of what is reasonable and necessary to accomplish their intended purpose. The estimate is based on what is needed to protect against the effects of US/Rok artillery and bombs, how the Soviets construct such positions, and available engineering data. Source material considered by the author included: Armed Forces Journal, Aug 84; Armed Forces Journal, Sept 84; FM 5-34, Engr FPR (1969); Soviet Artillery Battery Officer Handbook (Translated), Army Intel and Threat Center, Arlington Hall; International Defense Review, #7, 1983

Training, ETC. by LTC Arthur P. Carter Jr.

1. New OPFOR Reference Guide. Elsewhere in this issue you will find a new "OPFOR Reference Guide", which represents our 1 September 1984 version, which should be destroyed. We have included updated lists of publications, periodicals, training aids, and other information which is of value to the OPFOR trainer. Should you be aware of other useful items or wish to recommend corrections please call RED THRUST Operations (Autovon 737-3014/1727, Comm 8l7-287-3014). Holders of the OPFOR Workbook for Training Managers should replace the "OPFOR Reference Guide" in Section IV of the workbook with this updated version.

2. OPFOR Training Update. RED THRUST's first priority effort is training-either training a unit to be a realistic OPFOR or training an OPFOR Cadre on how to do OPFOR training ("train the trainer"). We salute those units who took advantage of this training in an effort to make their field training more realistic. The following unit training has been accomplished to date this FY:

a. OPFOR Unit Training:

B Tp, 230th Cav, 30th (Sep) Arm Bde, TNARNG

410th MP Co, 720th MP Bn, 89th MP Bde, Ft Hood, TX

2-5 Cav (Arm), 1st Cav Div, Ft Hood, TX

B Co, 1-5 Cav (M), 1st Cav Div, Ft Hood, TX

2-141 Inf (M), 49th Arm Div, TXARNG

b. OPFOR Cadre Training:

SCARNG (STARC, Trp Comd, 228th Sig Bde, 151st FA Bde)

Readiness Group, Ft Benjamin Harrison, IN

102d ARCOM, St Louis, MO

98th Training Div, Rochester, NY

3. Update of Soviet Defense Tactics "Loaner Class". We recently updated our class on Soviet Defensive Tactics. Headquarters who hold permanent copies of RED THRUSTs "Loaner Classes" were sent a copy of the new lesson plan, script, new slides, and instructions for renumbering the old slides which are still in the new class. Units who last used this class prior to December 1985 may wish to consider borrowing the current version.

4. South Carolina Army National Guard Initiative. The SCARNG recently initiated an ambitious OPFOR Cadre Training Program. The first effort of its kind, the goal of the "SWAMP FOX" OPFOR Training Program is to have trained OPFOR Cadre in every unit in the SCARNG. When RED THRUST has completed the series of weekend cadre training sessions, battalions and separate companies of the Troop Command,228th Signal Brigade, 351st Field Artillery Brigade, and the 218th Infantry Brigade (Sep)(M) will have their own OPFOR trainers and the SC-STARC HQ will have an OPFOR Platoon. The initial training session on 14-15 December included orientation for all commanders, S3s, and S2s on the program and was attended by the State AG and Deputy AG.

5. Combat Maneuver Training Complex (CMTC). If you have enjoyed fighting the OPFOR at the Ft Irwin National Training Center (NTC), and thought your upcoming tour in Germany would leave that all behind you, don't despair. Soon, you will be able to enjoy a similar experience in Germany. USAREUR/7th Army is establishing the CMTC at Hohenfels Training Area; the CMTC will permit combat maneuver battalions to exercise against a realistic, noncooperative OPFOR, using Soviet-style tactics, formations, and equipment, all MILES-equipped, similar to NTC. Although the ultimate goal is a full-time OPFOR Motorized Rifle Battalion (Reinf) stationed permanently at Hohenfels, that is a few years off. In the interim, the 7th Army Training Command OPFOR Detachment will train an OPFOR Reinforced Motorized Rifle Company from each brigade going to Hohenfels for training. This MRC(+) will then face each battalion during the battalion-level training phase of a rotation. Although the CMTC will not initially have all of its planned sophisticated instrumentation, this will be phased in as procurement funding permits. 7th Army Training Command has formed the OPFOR Detachment from their Foreign Materiel Training Detachment. As recently described in ARMOR MAGAZINE (Nov-Dec 85), the detachment has 32 US soldiers and 13 operational Warsaw Pact wheeled and tracked vehicles, including one BMP. The detachment uses these vehicles to support training exercises. As the full-time OPFOR Battalion "comes on line" at Hohenfels, VISMODS will be included to permit replication of the larger number of vehicles needed. The 7th ATC is now providing Threat and OPFOR training support to USAREUR units through the combined efforts of its OPFOR Branch and its Threat Training Branch. They also reproduce and distribute Threat and OPFOR training products, including several produced by RED THRUST, to USAREUR units.


DATE                                      Unit                                              Location
Intelligence Staff Training
  8 -  9  Mar 86                         50th AR Div                               Sea Girt, NJ
                                         (Somerset, NJ)
  8 -  9  Mar 86                         157th Inf Bde                            Horsham, PA
22 - 23 Mar 86                        2d Bde, 42d Inf Div                   New York City, NY
22 - 23 Mar 86                        26th Inf Div                                Boston, MA
  3 -   4 May 86                        157th Inf Bde                             Edgemont, PA
14 - 15  Jun 86                         67th Inf Bde                               Lincoln, NE
12 - 13   Jul 86                         32d Inf Bde                                Madison, WI
                                                                                                       (Milwaukee, WI)

Intelligence CPX Training
22 - 23 Feb 86                          39th Inf Bde/318th MID            Little Rock, AR
26 - 27 Apr 86                          50th AR Div/338th MID            Sea Girt, NJ
                                                                                                         (Somerset, NJ)
10 - 11 May 86                          47th Inf Div/247th MID            St. Paul, MN
19 - 20   Jul 86                          26th Inf Div/241st MID             Boston, MA
 9 - 10   Aug 86                          49th AR Div/304th ASA Bn      Ft. Hood, TX
                                                                                                          (Austin, TX)

CEWI Orientation Training
      6 Sep 86                       RC CEWI Unit:  389th MI Co (CEWI)(SFG)(ABN), 11th SFG
(Backfill Units)                        389th MID                              *Louisville, KY
13 Sep 86	RC CEWI Unit: 77th MI Co (CEWI)(SFG)(ABN), 12th SFG
(Backfill Units)                        77th MID                               *Arlington Heights, IL

FITD Scheduling Conference
15 - 17 Apr 86                          Special                        Ft Bragg, NC (Bldg #8-T-5453)

* Recommended Training Location. RC CEWI Backfill Units will be trained collectively in one location, if possible.


21 - 24 Mar 86                          2d Bn, 152d Inf INARNG                   Edinburgh, IN
23 - 29 Mar 86                          7th ATC OPFOR Det                          Hohenfels, Germany
17 - 24   Jul 86                          2d Bn, 77th Armor                              Yakima, WA
(T)  Jul-Aug 86                          Trp E, 82d Cav ORARNG                    TBA
(T)         Aug 86                         CDEC Armor Co                                  Ft Hunter-Liggett, CA

Magazine Covers



Soviet Military Developments, Marshall Lee Miller, pg. 34, Jan 86.


Soviet Air Assault Brigade, Part 1: Origins, (TCLP) Jack E. Easton and MAJ (P) Charles B. Cook, pg. 2, Vol. 31, No. 11, Nov 85.


Leading the Soviet Way, CPT George T. Norris, pg. 42, Vol. 53, No. 6, Nov-Dec 85.


NTC: Lessons Learned, CPT Gregory M. Heritage, pg. 39, Jan-Feb 86.

NTC: Techniques, LTC Alan G. Vitters, pg. 41, Jan-Feb 86.


International Defense Digest - Soviet 120mm Air Trans SP Mort/How on BMD Chassis, pg. 1729, Vol. 18, No. 11-85.

Soviet Corvettes Waiting For SS-N-22, pg. 1730, Vol. 18, No. 11-85.

MI-28 Sighting, pg. 1731, Vol. 18, No. 11-85.

Soviet Tank Battalions Now Reequipped, pg. 1731, Vol. 18, No. 11-85.

Cross Sword Fire-Control System For SA-NX-9 Missile on Sea Trails, pg. 1732, Vol. 18, No. 11-85.

Indian Navy's Anti-Missile Capacities, pg. 1732, Vol. 18, No. 11-85.

Paktia Observations, John Hannon, Phots-Kurt Pelda, pg. 1733, Vol. 18, No. 11-85.

Sukhoi SU-25 Frogfoot, STOL Strikes for the PACT, Bill Sweetnan, pg. 1753, Vol. 18, No. 11-85.

SS-23 in Poland, pg. 1898, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

New ICBM in Service, pg. 1898, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

Backfires for Siberia, pg. 1900, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

Soviet ABM System Extended, pg. 1900, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

16B Front Air Army Reinforced, pg. 1900, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

Bears for Blackjacks?, pg. 1900, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

The Long Standing Love Affair Between the USSR and the Tank, Marshall L. Miller, pg. 34, Jan 86.

The First 50 Indian-Built T-72 Tanks, pg. 1900, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

SA 5 in Eastern Europe, pg. 1900, vol. 18, No. 12-85.

Soviet Defense Minister Sokolov, World Traveller, Harriet Fast Scott, pg. 1902, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

Soviet Short-Range Ballistic Missiles, Now a Conventional Deep Strike Mission, LTC Kerry L. Hines, pg. 1909, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

Republic of Korea, Bleak Security Perspectives, H.M.F. Howarth, pg. 1977, Vol. 18, No. 12-85.

Electronic Warfare-Supplement of International Defense Soviet Electronic Warfare a Review of Published Material, Stephen L. Johnston, pg. 9, Suppl of IDR 12-85.


Jane's All the World's Aircraft 85-86, 67th year of issue, Edited by John R. Taylor.

Jane's Weapon Systems 85-86, 16th Edition, Edited by Ronald T. Pretty.

Jane's Armour and Artillery 85-86, 6th Edition, Edited by Christopher F. Foss.

Jane's Military Vehicles and Ground Support Equipment 1985, 6th Edition, Edited by Christopher F. Foss and Jerry J. Gandbe.

Jane's Fighting Ships 85-86, 88th Year of Issue, Edited by CPT John Moore, RN.

Jane's Infantry Weapons 85-86, 11th Edition, Edited by Ian V. Hogg.


"Soviet Organization for Theater War", Cpt Robert E. Kells, Jr., pg. 24-32, Dec 85.


WHY THE OMG?, MAJ Henry S. Shields, U.S. AFR., pg. 4, Vol LXV, No. 11-85.

Command and Confusion at the NTC, Maj Harvey A. Teston Jr., USA, pg. 56, Vol. LXV, No. 11-85.


Soviet Active Measures and Disinformation: Overview and Assessment, Dennis Kux, pg. 19, Vol. 15, No. 4, Winter 85.

Soviet Offensive Strategic Nuclear Forces: Evolution and Prospects, John M. Weinstein, pg. 29, Vol. 15, No. 4, Winter 85.

Soviet Thinking on the Next Land War, Hung P. Nguyen, pg. 41, Vol. 15, No. 4, Winter 85.


Russian on the Ground and in the Air, Nikolai Domhkovsky, pg. 25, Vol. 352, No. 1, Jan 86.

The Silent, But Deadly, Binary Weapons, Lev Semeiko, pg. 49, Vol. 352, No. 1, Jan 86.


Afghan War Finally Hits Soviets Homefront, pg. 41, Vol. 95, No. 25, 16 Dec 85.

Fort Hood, Texas 76544-0056

3 February 1986


1. The purpose of this OPFOR reference guide is to provide commanders, training managers, OPFOR trainers, and interested personnel a consolidated listing of available OPFOR and unclassified Potential Adversary information, literature, training aids and devices. Every effort has been made to make this guide as complete and functional as possible. It will be periodically updated as required. Local reproduction is authorized.

2. Section I provides an abbreviated description of procedures for obtaining the training references and aids listed in this guide. Requests for items not produced by RED THRUST should be ordered from the originator of those products. RED THRUST does not stock those items.

3. The reference guide is organized as follows:

Section    I. How To Request Training References/Aids        Page A-1

Section   II. OPFOR Training Management Reference            Page B-1

Section  III. OPFOR Training References                      Page C-1

Section   IV. Potential Adversary (Threat) References        Page D-1

Section    V. Audiovisual Products                           Page E-1

Section   VI. Training Devices	                             Page F-1

Section  VII. Periodicals                                    Page G-1

Section VIII. Publications                                   Page H-1

Section   IX. Service Schools Points of Contact              Page I-1

Section    X. TASC Locations And Addresses                   Page J-1

Section   XI. Other Sources                                  Page K-1

Section  XII. Simulation Systems                             Page L-1

4. Comments and/or recommendations regarding the reference guide should be directed to:

P.O. Box 5068
Ft Hood, Texas 76544-0056



1. Army Regulations, DA Circulars, Field Manuals, Training Circulars, DA Pamphlets, TRADOC Bulletins, and TRADOC Pamphlets.

a. In addition to locally established procedures, refer to AR 310-2, DA Pam 310-1, and DA Pam 310-10, and TRADOC Pam 310-1.

b. Active and Reserve Component Army units should submit DA Form 12-3 (Requirements for Initial Distribution of Publications and Blank Forms) to establish an account. Requisitions for individual references should be submitted on DA Form 17 and 17-1.

c. Organizations not authorized an account with Baltimore should submit their requests to their parent unit.

2. Graphic training aids (to include TV Tapes and Training Films).

a. In addition to locally established procedures, you will need to refer to DA Pam 108-1. Requests for training aids should be submitted through the Training Audiovisual Support Center servicing your unit.

b. If you desire a particular training aid not available locally, but it is available through another TASC, recommend you contact your supporting TASC for procurement.

3. DIA Publications

To request DIA publications, submit DD Form 1142 through command channels IAW locally established procedures.

4. Commercial periodicals and Publications

Refer to your post or local library, local book stores, or contact the publisher directly.


Publication                            Subject



     108-2	    Army Training and Audiovisual Support w/Changes 1 & 2

     350-1          Army Iraining w/Change 1

     350-2          Opposing Force (OPFOR) Program


     108-4          Index of Army Motion Pictures and Related Audiovisual Aids

     310-1          Index of Administrative Publications

     310-12         Index and Description of Army Training Devices w/Change 1


     25-2           How To Manage Training In Units


     25-6           Tactical Engagement Simulation Training With MILES


     350-1          Active Component Training w/Change 1

     350-2          Reserve Component Training w/Change 1

FORSCOM Supplement 1 To AR 330-2, Opposing Force (ORFOR) Program


     71-9           Catalog of TASO Training Devices

     310-1          Index of Administrative Publications

     310-3          TRADOC Army-Wide Training Literature

     350-33         Educational Video Tape Catalog

     350-54         Catalog of TRADOC Programmed Instructional Material

     381-1          Foreign Intelligence Reference Guide (FOUO)


Publication                Subject
     30-102            Opposing Forces: Europe
     34-71             OPFOR Training Nodule Korea: North Korean Military Forces
   (a)   OPFOR Maneuver Unit Field Pocket Reference, USA FORECOM OPFOR Tng
              Det (RED THRUST), January 1984.
   (b)   OPFOR Maneuver Unit Field Pocket Reference, Tank Unit, USA FORSCOM
              OPFOR Trig Det (RED THRUST), August 1984.
   (c)   OPFOR Maneuver Unit Field Pocket Reference, Motorized Rifle
              Unit, USA EORSCOM OPFOR Trig Pet (RED THRUST), April 1985.
   (d)   Observations at the NTC Reference Handbook, USA FORSCOM OPFOR Tng Det
              (RED THRUST), April 1985.
   (e)   RED THRUST Star, a quarterly newsletter providing OPFOR information,
              may be obtained from:

P.O. Box 5068
Ft Hood, TX 76544-0056


Publication          Subject                 Number
  100-2-1             Soviet Army Operations
  100-2-2             Soviet Army Specialized Warfare and Rear Area Support
  100-2-3             Soviet Army Troops Organization and Equipment
  550-6-1             USSR: Analytical Survey of Literature, 1971
  550-8               Communist Eastern Europe Analytical Survey of Literature, 1977
  550-81              Area Handbook of North Korea
  550-95              Area Handbook of Soviet Union
  381-1               Foreign Intelligence Reference Guide (FOUO)
DDB-1100-164-78         Bibliography of Unclassified Books and Monograps on the Soviet and East European
                        Ground Forces (Reference)
DDB-1600-5-80           CBR Protection of Soviet Ground Forces
DDB-2200-33-77          Comparative Dictionary of US-Soviet Terms
DIAM 59-4               Defense Intelligence Thesaurus (DIT) (Reference)
DDB-2680-41-78          Handbook of Soviet Armed Forces Military Symbols
DDB-2245-1-82           Index to and Extracts from Voyennaya Mysl' (1963-1969)
Vol. 1                  Vol. 1
DDB-2245-1-82           Index to and Extracts from Voyennaya Mysl' (1971-1973)
Vol. II                 Vol. II
DIAM-57-25-100          Major World Aircraft Recognition Guide (excluding US+USSR) 1982
DIAM-57-25-111          Major Naval Combatants Recognition Guide, 1980
DIAM 57-25-112          Major World Helicopter Recognition Guide, 1980
DDB-2600-1279-78        Polical Control of the Soviet Armed Forces: The Committee of People's Control
DDB-1100-364-82         Review of the Soviet Ground Forces
DDB-2610-29-79          The Role of the Soviet Political Officer
DDB-1160G-514-82        Small-Caliber Ammunition Identification Guide Vol. II
Vol. 2                  20mm to 40mm Cartridges
DDB-2610-36-8           The Soviet Conceptual Framework of the Development and Applcation of
                        Military Power
DDB-1130-8-82           Soviet Front Fire Support
DDI-ll00-128-76         Soviet Ground Forces Night Operations
DDB-11-200-78           The Soviet Ground Forces Training Program
DDB-2610-22-79          The Soviet Ministry of Defense and Military Management
DDB-1100-197-78         The Soviet Motorized Rifle Battalion
DDB-1100-77-76          The Soviet Motorized Rifle Company
DDB-1110-1-79           The Soviet Motorized Rifle Division
DDB-1210-13-82          Soviet Navy Surface Ship Identification Guide
DDB-2240-5-82           Soviet Perceptions of Africa: Case Studies of Moscow's Involvement in the Horn,
                        East Africa and Zimbabwe
DDB-1120-19-82          The Soviet Tank Division
DDB-1120-12-79          Soviet Tank Regiment Tactics
DIA-2680-170-84         Force Structure Summary-USSR, Mongolia, and East Europe (U)
DDB-1300-153-79         Training Soviet Military Flight Personnel
DDI-2250-17-77          USSR: The Unity and Integration of Soviet Political, Military and Defense 
                        Industry Leadership

DDB-1100-255-80 Warsaw Pact Ground Forces Equipment Identification Guide: Armored

                        Fighting Vehicles
DDB-1100-313-82         Warsaw Pact Ground Forces Equipment Identification Guide: Artillery,
                        Rockets, and MIssiles
DDB-1100-382-82         Warsaw Pact Ground Forces Equipment Identification Guide: Engineer Equipment
DDB-1100-385-82         Warsaw Pact Ground Forces Equipment Identification Guide: Helicopters
DDB-1100-314-82         Warsaw Pact Ground Forces Equipment Identification Guide: Infantry Weapons


Abbreviations used in this section indicate the following types of AV products:

AE    Army Europe                           SL       Slides Only
AFIF  Armed Forces Information Film         SLC      Slides and Charts
C     Charts, Cards                         T        Transparencies
G     Games                                 TC       Transparencies and Charts
GTA   Graphic Training Aid                  TF       Training Film
MF    Miscellaneous Films                   TF       (VT) Television Videotap
                                            TVT      Telvision Videotape
1.FILM, VT,                    Subject
  TF (VT) 21-6321      How the Soviets Fight-Capabilities of Soviet Helicopters
                       COLOR 18 Min 1985
  TF 21-6322           How to Fight-Soviet Radio Electronic Combat (U)
                       COLOR 19 Min 1985
  TV (VT) 21-6330      Soviet Command, Control and Communication (U)
                       COLOR 19 Min 1976
  TF (VT) 21-4925      How to Fight: The Tank/Mechanized Infantry Team, Modern Battle Part I
                       COLOR 24 Min 1976
  TF (VT) 21-4993      How To Fight: The BMR, Capability and Countermeasures 1976
                       COLOR 16 Min 1976
  TF 21-4995           How to Fight: The T-62, Capabilities and Countermeasures
                       COLOR 22 min 1978
  TF (VT) 21-4995      How to Fight: The T-62, Capabilities and Countermeasures
                       COLOR 22 min 1978
  TF (VT) 21-6151      How to Fight: The Enemy in Modern Battle
                       COLOR 23 min 1980
  MF 21-5912           A Look Down The Soviet Barrel
                       COLOR 32 min 1975
  MF 21-5912           You Can Beat It
                       COLOR 21 min 1976
  VT 28-80             The National Training Center
                       COLOR 23 min 1980
  VT 30-1              Soviet Military Liaison Mission Briefing
                       COLOR 19 min 1975
  VT 30-2              Warsaw Pact, APC's
                       COLOR 9 min 1977
  VT 30-3              Warsaw Pact, Armies Series, Part II, Tanks
                       COLOR 15 min 1977
  VT 30-4              Performance Characteristics of the T-54 Russian Tank
                       COLOR 12 min 1973
  VT 30-6              Characteristics of the T-62
                       COLOR 25 min 1976
  VT 30-10             Foreign Weapons Display
                       COLOR 18 min 1976
  VT 30-12             Soviet Offensive Operations, CACDA Threat Div
                       COLOR 30 min 1976


   FILM, VT, CARD,                      SUBJECT
   VT 30-18                         The Soviet Threat
                                    B&W 17 min 1977
   VT 30-24                         Soviet Armed Forces
                                    COLOR 28 min 1977
   MF 30-5906                       Countersurveillance: Part 1, The Threat (For Official Use Only)
                                    COLOR 14 min 1979
   TVT 45-92                        Suppression of Enemy Air Defense Wpns, Part I
                                    COLOR 14 min 1979
   TVT 46-93                        Suppression of Enemy Air Defense Wpns, Part II
                                    COLOR 12 min 1978
   TVT 46-112                       The High Threat Environment, Part III: Soviet Anti-Aircraft Weapon Systems
                                    COLOR 8 min 1978
   TVT 46-113                       The High Threat Environment, Part IV: Soviet Threat Aircraft
                                    COLOR 8 min 1978
   AFIF (VT) 227                    Comrade Soldier
                                    COLOR 41 min 1972
2. GTA
   C 17-2-13                        Armored Vehicle Recognition
                                    Card 51 Oct 1984
   C 30-3-10                        Warsaw Treaty Organization
   C 30-3-14                        Warsaw Pact and NATO Tank Recognition Guide
   SLC3O-3-16                       Soviet Army and Navy Uniforms, Rank, and Insignia
                                    COLOR 9 Charts May 1973
   C 30-3-17                        Intelligence Documents for Feild Training
                                    Pocket Cards 1977
   C 30-3-19                        Warsaw Pact Charts Vulnerable Points
   C 30-3-20                        Warsaw Pact Tanks, LAW Vulnerable Points
   C 30-3-22                        Warsaw Pact Tanks, TOW Vulnerable Points
   C 30-3 23                        Soviet Big 7, Intelligence Chart
   C 30-3-24                        Comparison of Soviet Medium Tank T-72, T-62
   C 30-3-25                        Soviet ATGMs (Antitank Guided Missiles)
   C 30-4-2                         North Korea Communications Equipment
   SL 44-1                          GOAR-Ground Observer Aircraft Recognition
                                    B&W 1408 Slides 1974
   C 44-2-4                         Soviet Air Defense Weapons
   C 44-2-5                         Soviet and Warsaw Pact Forward Area Aircraft
   C 44-2-6                         Aircraft Recognition Playing Cards


   G 71-2-2                        CAMMS, Computer Assisted Map Maneuver System
   G 71-2-143                      Pegasus Field Observations Booklet
   G 71-2-144                      Pegasus Field Observations Booklet
   AE 30-7                         Uniform and Insignia of Admirals and Generals of the Soviet Services
   AE 30-8                         Soviet Tank Vulnerabilities
   AE 30-9                         Antitank Weapons
   AE 30-11                        Field Artillery
   AE 30-12                        Airborne Assault Guns
   AE 30-13                        Warsaw Pact Artillery Tractors
   AE 30-14                        Uniforms and Insignia of the Officers of the Soviet Navy
   AE 30-19                        Soviet and Soviet Satellite Aircraft Insignia
   AE 30-20                        Squad Weapons
   AE 30-25                        Soviet Surface-To-Surface Guided Missiles
   AE 30-28                        Soviet Army Field Shoulder Boards, Officers and Enlisted Men
   AE 30-32                        Uniforms and Insignia for Enlisted Sergeants and
                                   Soldiers, Officer Candidates of Military Academies,
                                   "SUVOROV" Cadets and Military Workmen
   AE 30-33                        Army and Navy Shoulder Boards, Sergeants, Petty
                                   Officers, Enlisted Men, Seamen and Cadets of the
                                   Soviet Army and Navy
   AE 30-34                        Soviet Hand Grenades
   AE 30-036                       T-72
   AE 30-37                        Warsaw Pact Countries: Combat Construction Equipment
   AE 30-38                        Warsaw Pact Countries: Construction Equipment
   AE 30-39                        Soviet Amphibious Vehicles
   AE 30-44                        Uniform and Insignia For Warrant Officers and Service
                                   Women Of The Soviet Army
   AE 30-46                        Soviet Antitank Missiles
   AE 30-51                        Soviet Mine Laying And Clearing Equipment
   AE 30-59                        Soviet CBR
   AE 30-60                        Know Your Vehicles
   AE 30-075                       AK-74 Fact Sheet
   AE 30-79                        Soviet And Satellite Tank And Truck Launched Bridges
   AE 30-80                        Soviet Tactical Ballistic Missiles
   AE 30-81                        Soviet Free Rocket Over Ground "FROG"
   AE 30-082                       BMP OPFOR Fact Sheet
   AE 30-83                        Soviet Surface-To-Air Missile
   AE 30-84                        SA-2 Guideline Surface-To-Air Missile
   AE 30-85                        Soviet Long Range Ballistic Missiles
   AE 30-88                        Warsaw Pact Countries: Bridge Equipment
   AE 30-90                        Soviet Company Weapons
   AE 30-91                        Warsaw Pact Countries: Amphibious Scout Cars
   AE 30-92                        Warsaw Pact Countries: Tracked APC Infantry Combat Vehicles
   AE 30-93                        Warsaw Pact Countries: Wheeled APCs
   AE 30-094                       T-62
   AE 30-095                       BMP
   AE 30-096                       T-64

4. Visual Aircraft Recognition Training Package (SQT-8-68)

Consists of lesson plans, student work book, and examination. Used at US Army Air Defense Artillery School, Ft Bliss, TX, these kits are available at every ADA unit down to battalion level. They can also be obtained from most local TASCs.


Number         Page                   Nomenclature
                      ARMOR (17-Series)
DVC-T 17-81           3-43                    T-62 Medium Tank (1/10 scale)
DVC-T 17-82           3-43                    BMP Infantry Combat Vehicle (1/10 scale)
DVC-T 17-83           3-43                    ZSU-23-4 Self-Propelled Antiaircraft Gun (1/10 Scale)
DVC-T 17-84           3-43                    122MM Self-Propelled Artillery (l/l0 Scale)
DVC 17-98             3-49                    Dunn Kempf Battle Simulation Game
DVC 17-102            3-53                    Armor Vehicle Models (1/35th Scale)
                      GENERAL (20-Series)
DVC-D 20-31           3-59                    Threat Quiz Gaming Device
                      OPPOSING FORCE (30-Series)
DVC-T 30-4            3-77                    Suitcase SAGGER
DVC-T 30-5            3-79                    RPG-7 Antitank Grenade Launcher with Round
DVC-T 30-6            3-81                    AK-47 Assault Rifle
DVC-T 30-7            3-81                    RPK Squad Machine Gun
DVC-T 30-9            3-83                    POMZ-2 Antipersonnel Mine
DVC-T 30-10           3-83                    RG-42 Antipersonnel Mine
DVC-T 30-11           3-83                    RGD-5 Antipersonnel Grenade
DVC-T 30-12           3-83                    RKG-3 Antitank Grenade
DVC-T 30-13           3-85                    Opposing Force Helmet Cover
DVC-T 30-14           3-87                    SA-7 (GRAIL)
DVC-T 30-16           3-89                    Opposing Force Uniform for Armywide Use
DVC-T 30-19           3-93                    Accoutrements Kit
DVC-T 30-20           3-97                    Visual Modification Kits (VISMOD)


Air Defense: by US Army Air Defense School, order through Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office (SSDM), Washington, DC 20402, AV: 978-4138. Quarterly publication providing information on the latest worldwide tactical, doctrinal, and technical developments in air defense. $8.50 as of August 85.

Air Force: by Air Force Association, Suite 400, 1750 Pennsylvania Aye, N.W., Washington, DC 20006, (202) 637-3300. Monthly publication providing information on Air Force tactics, weapons, strategy, and other Air Force related areas. $15 as of Aug 85.

Armed Forces Journal: by Army & Navy Journal Inc., 1414 22nd St N.W., Suite 104, Washington, DC 20037, (202) 296-0450. Monthly publication devoted to strategy, weapons, politics, and economics affecting armed forces internationally. $l9 as of Aug 85.

Armor: by US Army Armor School, US Armor Association, P.O. Box 607, Fort Knox, KY 40121, (502) 942-8624. Bimonthly publication devoted to disseminating knowledge of the military arts and sciences with special attention to mobility in ground warfare. $16 as of Aug 85.

Army: by Association of the US Army, 2425 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22201-3385. Monthly
professional journal devoted to the advancement of the military arts and sciences and representing
the interests of the US Army. $16 as off Aug 85.

Army Reserve: Chief, Army Reserve, ATTN: DAAR-PA, Washington, DC 20310. Published quarterly
covering events, actions and information related to the Army Reserve. (No price quoted).

Army Times: by Army Times Publishing Co., Springfield, VA 22159, (703) 750-8600 Weekly publication, covering weekly update of current events, policies, data, weapons, weapon systems related to the Army. $39.00 as of Aug 85.

Army Trainer: by Department of the Army (TRADOC), P.O. Drawer A, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-0309, (804) 878-5475/5893. Quarterly publication providing timely information on training plans, policies and developments; exchanges knowledge and experiences among active and reserve component, as well as DA civilian trainers. S13.50 as of Aug 85.

Aviation Digest: by US Army Aviation Center, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Quarterly publication providing information on the latest tactical, doctrinal, and technical developments in aviation world wide. $26 as of Aug 85.

Aviation Week and Space Technology: by McGraw-Hill, Inc., P.O. Box 1505, Neptune, NJ 07753. Weekly publication dedicated to aviation, air transportation, aerospace, advanced and related technologies. $48 as of Aug 85.

Defense: by Whitton Press Limited; order through Expeditors of Printed Word LTD., 527 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10022. Monthly journal devoted to defense strategy, defense equipment and the politics and economics of the international defense scene. $60 as of Aug 85.

Defense 85: by DOD; order through Superintendent of Documents, Washington, DC 20402 (602) 538-3033, AV: 879-3033. Monthly publication providing official and professional information to commanders and key personnel on matters related to defense policies, programs, and interests.

Infantry: by US Army Infantry School, P.O. Box 2005, Fort Benning, GA 31905-0605, (404) 544-4951, AV: 784-4951. Bimonthly publication providing current information on infantry weapons, equipment, tactics, and techniques, also includes relevant historical articles. $10 as of Aug 85.

International Defense Review: by Interavia S.A., c/o Publications Expediting Inc., 200 Meacham Ave.,
Elmont, NY 11003, (516) 352-7300. Monthly publication devoted to weapons systems on
the international scene. $80 as of Aug 85.


Military Intelligence: by US Army Intelligence Center and School; order through Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. (6021 538-3033, AV: 879-3033. Quarterly publication devoted to suojects on military intelligence, and other related areas. $9.50 as of Aug 85.

Military Review: by US Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-6910, (913) 684-5642, AV: 552-5642. Monthly Army professional journal devoted to tactics, doctrine, strategy, and military related topics. $14 as of Aug 85.

National Defense: by American Defense Preparedness Assn., Suite 900, 1700 N. Moore St., Arlington, VA 22209-1974.
Published two times a year; provides insights and information on defense strategy, logistics, politics, and economics on the national and international scene. $25 as of Aug 85.

Naval Forces: by Monch (UK) LTD., 1309 Vincent Place, McLean, VA 22101, (703) 790-5252. Published six times a year; dedicated to naval strategy, naval weapons and equipment and politics on the international defense scene. $22 as of Aug 85.

Newsweek: by Newsweek Inc., The Newsweek Bldg., Livingston, NJ 07039. Weekly world update of current events. $39 as of Aug 85.

Problems of Communism: by US Information Agency, For Subscription: Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Bimonthly publication providing analyses and significant information about the contemporary affairs of the Soviet Union, China, and comparable states and political movements. $16 as of Aug 85.

Soviet Life: by the Embassy of the USSR, Washington, DC 20009. Monthly Soviet publication providing views of the Soviet Union and its people. $9.35 as of Aug 85.

Soviet Military Review: by USSR; order through Kamkin, Inc., 12224 Park Lawn Dr., Rockville, MD 20852. Soviet monthly translation of articles on military activities. $24 as of Aug 85.

Soviet Press: by Directorate of Soviet Affairs, US Air Force Intelligence Service, AFIS/INCE, Balling AED, Washington, DC 20332-5000, AV: 297-4118/4150. Monthly publication of selected translations in the areas of military affairs, aerospace matters, and other subjects of special interest.

Strategic Review: by US Strategic Institute, 20 Memorial Dr., Cambridge, MA 02142. (617) 661-1240. Quarterly publication presenting papers of professional merit on matters of current significance in the politico-military field. $15 as of Aug 85.

U.S. News & World Report: by U.S. News & World, Inc., 9465 Wilshire Blvd., Beverly Hills, CA 90212-2646. Published weekly, except two issues combined at year-end; devoted entirely to national and international affairs. $41 as of Aug 85.

Jane's Defense Weekly: Janes Publishing, Inc, 4th Floor, 115 5th Aye, New York, NY 10003, (212) 254-9097. $65 a year.


1. Commercial Publications

Antitank Warfare, MG G. Biryukor and COL G. Melnikov, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1972 (English)

Tne Armed Forces of the USSR, Harriet and William Fast Scott, Westfield Press, Boulder, CD, 1979

The Armies of the Warsaw Pact Nations, Friedrich Weiner, Carl Ueberruier, Vienna, 1981

Artillery of the World, Christopher Foss, Scribner, New York 1976

The Battle for Moscow, Albert Seaton, Playboy Press, New York, 1980

Brassey's Artillery of the World, Brigadier Shelford Bidwell, Pergamon Press Inc., Elmstead, New York, 1981

Guide to the Soviet Navy, 3rd Edition Norman Polmar, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1983

Illustrated Guide to the Modern Soviet Air Force, Bill Gunston, Arco Publishing Inc., New York, 1982

Illustrated Guide to the Modern Soviet Navy, John Jordan, Arco Publishing Inc., New York, 1982

Imbalance of Power (Shifting U.S.-Soviet Military Strength), John N. Collins, Presidio Press, San Rafael, California, 1978

Inside the KGB, Alekse Myagkov, New York, Ballantine Books, 1976

Inside the Soviet Army, Viktor Surorov, Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., New York, 1982

International Defense Review: (Air Defense Systems), Interavia S.A., J. Philip Geddes, Los Angeles, California, 1982

International Defense Review: (Anti-Tank Weapons), Interavia S.A., J. Philip Geddes, Los Angeles, California, 1982

International Defense Review: (Soviet Armed Forces and Their Equipment), Interavia S.A., J. Philip Geddes, Los Angeles, California, 1982

International Defense Review: (Tracked Armored Vehicles), Interavia S.A., J. Philip Geddes, Los Angeles, California, 1982

Jane's All the Worlds Aircraft, John W.R. Taylor, Editor, Janes Publishing Co. Ltd., London, 1982

Jane's Military Vehicles and Ground Support Equipment 1985, 6th Edition, Edited by Christopher F. Foss and Jerry J. Grandbe.

Jane's Weapon Systems 85-86, 16th Edition, Edited by Ronald T. Pretty.

Jane's Armour and Artillery 85-86, 6th Edition, Edited by Christopher F. Foss

Jane's Fighting Ships 85-86, 88th Year of Issue, Edited by Cpt John Moore, RN.

Jane's Infantry Weapons 85-86, 11th Edition, Edited by Ian V. Hogg.

Soviet Air Power, Bill Sweetman and Bill Gunston, Crescent Books, New York, 1979

Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army, David C. Isby, Jane's, New York, 1981


Soviet Military Power, (Fourth Edition), Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, 1985

2. U.S. Government Printing Office Publications

Soviet Military Thought: A Soviet View translated and published under the auspices of the USAF. The below list represents the series which have been published to date. Obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S., Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.

Volume  1.         The Offensive, 008-070-00329-5
Volume  2.         Marxism-Leninism on War and Army, 008-070-00338-4
Volume  3.         Scientific-Technical Progress and the Revolution in Military
                   Affairs, 008-070-00340-6
Volume  4.         The Basic Principles of Operational Art Tactics, 008-070-00342-2
Volume  5.         The Philosophical Heritage of V. I. Lenin and Problems of
                   Contemporary War, 008-070-00343-1
Volume  6.         Concept, Algorithm Decision, 008-070-00344-9
Volume  7.         Military Pedagogy, 008-070-00352-0
Volume  8.         Military Psychology, 008-070-00353-8
Volume  9.         Dictionary of Basic Military Terms, 008-070-00360-1
Volume 10.         Civil Defense, 008-070-00382-1
Volume 11.         Selected Soviet Military Writings 1970-1975, 008-070-00392-9
Volume 12.         The Armed Forces of the Soviet State, 008-070-00379-1
Volume 13.         The Officers Handbook, 008-070-00396-1
Volume 14.         The People, The Army, The Commander, 008-070-004101
Volume 15.         Long-Range Missile-Equipped, 008-070-00428-3
Volume 16.         Forcasting in Military Affairs, 008-070-00456-9
Volume 17.         The Command and Staff of the Soviet Army Air Force in the Great
                   Patriotic War, 1944-1949, 008-070-00490-9
Volume 18.         Fundamentals of Tactical Command and Control, 008-070-00514-0
Volume 19.         The Soviet Armed Forces: A History of Their Organizational
                   Development, 008-070-00524-7

Studies in Communist Affairs This series places in the public domain Department of Defense-sponsored unclassified analyses of contemporary communist affairs. Order from the U.S. Government Printing Office.

1.   The Soviet Theater Nuclear Offensive, 0080-070-00375-9
2.   Naval Power in Soviet Policy, 008-070-00421-6
3.   Soviet Air Power and the Pursuit of New Military Options, 008-070-00429-1
4.   Soviet Policy in the Post-Tito Balkans, 008-070-00440-2
5a.  Selected Readings from Military Thought, 1963-1973, (Part I), 008-070-00471-2
5b.  Selected Readings From Military Thought, 1963-1973, (Part II), 008-070-00480-1


A number of useful training references can be obtained from the service schools. Each school normally publishes a catalog of their respective reference materials. To order, submit DA Form 17 to:

SCHOOL ADDRESS                              AUTOVON                                   COMMERCIAL
Commander                                  298-3285                                  (301) 278-3285
US Army Ordnance Center and School
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
Commandant                                 354-3008/                                 (703) 664-3008
US Army Engineer School                        2536/                                 TOLL 800-336-3095
ATTN: ATZA-TD-NR                               5478/
Fort Belvoir, VA 22060
Commandant                                 699-4602                                  (317) 542-1832
US Army Soldier Support Center                                                                 4588
Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN 46249
Commandant                                 835-1823                                  (404) 545-1823
US Army Infantry School
Fort Benning, GA 31905
Commandant                                 978-2732                                  (915) 568-2732
US Army Air Defense Center & Ft Bliss
Directorate of Training Developments
Fort Bliss, TX 79916
Commandant                                 978-8795                                  (915) 568-8795
US Army Sergeants Major Academy
Fort Bliss, TX 79918
Commandant                                 236-4404                                  (919) 396-4404
US Army Institute of Military
Assistance, HQ USA JF Kennedy
(Special Warfare Center)
Fort Bragg, NC 28307
Commandant                                 927-5503                                  (804) 878-5503
US Army Transportation School
Fort Eustis, VA 23604
Commandant                                 471-4325                                  (512) 221-4325
Academy of Health Sciences
Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234-6100
Commandant                                 639-5903                                  (405) 351-5903
US Army Field Artillery School
Fort Sill, OK 73503-5000
Commandant                                 780-3980                                  (404) 791-3980
US Army Signal School
Fort Gordon, GA 30905-5053
Commandant                                 464-2251/3648                             (502) 624-5353
UA Army Armor School
Ft Knox, KY 40121-5215


Commandant                                552-4484                                   (913) 684-4484
US Army Command and General
Staff College
Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027
Commandant                                687-3275/                                  (804) 734-3275
Army Logistics Management Center              3275/3430
Fort Lee, VA 23801
Commandant                                687-3561                                   (804) 734-3561
US Army Quartermaster School
Fort Lee, VA 23801-5036
Commandant                                865-4334                                   (205) 238-4334
US Army Military Police School
Fort McClellan, AL 36205-5000
Commandant                                746-3349                                   (205) 876-3349
US Army Ordinance Missile and
Munitions Center and School
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35897-6000
Commandant                                558-3283                                   (205) 255-3283
US Army Aviation School Office of
School Secretary Training Spt Div
Fort Rucker, AL 36360


The following information should be helpful in understanding the Armys method of providing training material support to units:

-The Army uses consolidated training support entities called Training and Audiovisual Support Centers (normally abbreviated to TASCs) located on larger installations to store and issue or loan training materials to user units within their geographic area of support responsibility.

-The TASCs are an organizational part of and directly responsible to the installation commander, normally under the training/operations officers staff supervision. TASCs prepare all drawings and projection slides for command briefings and training. Frequently, they design and locally fabricate training "devices" to aid training on ranges, in unit classrooms, etc.

-The TASCs maintain an informal, professional rapport with each other but they are not collected under an umbrella training support command. They exchange designs, ideas, and, in certain instances, produce aids for their counterparts on a reimbursable basis.

-TASCs support Active, Reserve and National Guard units.



Aberdeen Proving Ground

ATTN: ATSL-DD-TS                      AV:   283-3469/3058
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005     (C)   (703) 278-3058/3469
Fort Belvoir
USAEC & Ft Belvoir
ATTN: TASC Bldg 223                   AV:   354-4487/2278
Ft Belvoir, VA 22060                  (C)   (703) 664-4487/3378
Fort Benning
USAIC & Ft Benning
ATTN: ATZB-DPT-TASC                   AV:   835-7775/4192
Ft Benning, GA 31905                  (C)   (404) 545-7775/4162
Fort Bragg
XVIII Abn Corps & Ft Bragg
ATTN: AFZA-DPT-TASC                   AV:   236-2002/8319
Ft Bragg, NC 28307-5000               (C)   (919) 396-6402
Fort Campbell
101st Abn Div & Ft Campbell           FTS   356-7251/7252
ATTN: AFZB-DPT-TASC                   AV:   635-7251
Bldg 849                              (C)   (502) 798-7251-7252
Ft Campbell, KY 42223-1295
Fort Devens
Fort Devens                           FTS   796-3104/3015
ATTN: AFZD-ITSV                       AV:   256-3104/3015
Ft Devens, MA 01433-5290              (C)   (617) 796-3104/3015


Fort Dix
USATC & Ft Dix                       AV:   944-5464/6153/5045/4041
ATTN: ATZD-GCB                       (C)   (609) 562-5464/6153/5045/4041
Ft Dix, NJ 08640-5320
Fort Drum
Fort Drum                            FTS   953-2913
ATTN: AFZS-PTS-TA                    AV:   341-2913
Ft Drum, NY 13602                    (C)   (315) 785-2913
Fort Eustis
USALAO & Ft Eustis
Bldg 1608                            AV:   927-2206/5784
ATTN: AMXLA-EU                       (C)   (804) 878-2206/5707
Ft Eustis, VA 23604-5535
Fort Gordon
USASC & FG Ft Gordon
ATTN: ATSN-DS-T                      AV:   780-3341/6220
Ft Gordon, GA 30905-5156             (C)   (404) 791-3341/6220/6372/4728
Fort Hamilton
Fort Hamilton
ATTN: ATZD-SH-TA                     AV:   232-4609
Brooklyn, NY 11252                   (C)   (212) 630-4609
Indiantown Gap
United States Army Garrison
ATTN: AFZQ-PTS-T                     AV:   235-2611
Ft Indiantown Gap                    (C)   (717) 273-2611
Annville, PA 17003-5011
Fort Jackson
USATC & Ft Jackson
ATTN: ATZJ-PTSA                      AV:   734-4619/6014
Ft Jackson, SC 29207-5340            (C)   (803) 751-4619
Fort Lee
Bldg 11619
ATTN: ATZM-PTS-S                     AV:   687-4962/1097
Ft Lee, VA 23801                     (C)   (804) 734-4962/1097
Fort Meade
Ft George G. Meade
ATTN:AFZI-PTS-TA                     AV:   923-5756-5504
Ft Meade, MD 20755-5091              (C)   (301) 677-5756/5504


Fort McClellan
USA MP/TC & Ft McClellan
ATTN: ATZN-PTS-D                     AV:   865-5627/4298
Ft McClellan, AL 36205               (C)   (205) 238-5627/4298
Fort Mcpherson
Ft McPherson                         FTS   752-2213
ATTN: AFZK-DPTS-TASC                 AV:   588-2213
Ft McPherson, GA 30330               (C)   (404) 752-2213
Fort Monroe
Ft Monroe
ATTN: ATZG-PTS-TASO                  AV:   680-2262/2263
Ft Monroe, VA 23651                  (C)   (804) 727-2262/2263
Training & Audiovisual Spt Ctr
US Army Support Element              FTS   777-1276
ATTN: AFZQ-PTS-T-OS                  AV:   277-1276
Oakdale, PA 15071                    (C)   (412) 777-1276
Redstone Arsenal
ATTN: ASMI-RA-L-AV                   AV:   746-1820/1390
Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898           (C)   (205) 876-2855
Fort Rocker
ATTN: ATZQ-PT-TA                     AV:   558-2116/2620
Ft Rocker, AL 36360                  (C)   (205) 255-2116/2620
Fort Stewart
24th Inf Div & Ft Stewart            FTS   767-4905/7828
ATTN: AFZP-PTA                       AV:   870-4905/7828
Ft Stewart, GA 31314-5000            (C)   (912) 767-4905/7828
Fort Benjamin Harrison
USA Finance & Accounting Center      FTS   335-2389
ATTN: FICU-OA                        AV:   699-2389
Indianapolis, IN 46249               (C)   (317) 542-2383/2389
Fort Chaffee
US Army Garrison
ATTN: ATZR-Z                          AV:   962-7282/2082
Ft Chaffee, AR 72901                  (C)   (501) 484-2082/7282
Fort Hood
III Corps & Ft Hood                    FTS   685-5004
ATTN: AFZP-DPT-ST                      AV:   737-5004/5605
Ft Hood, TX 76544                      (C)   (817) 685-5004/5605


Fort Knox
ATTN: ATZK-DPT-TASC                    AV:   464-6946/2741
Ft Knox, KY 40121-5000                 (C)   (502) 624-6946/2741
Fort Leavenworth
USACAC & Ft Leavenworth
ATTN: ATZL-PTS-TA                      AV:   552-3782
Ft Leavenworth, KS 66027               (C)   (703) 684-3782
Fort Leonard Wood
USATC Eng & Ft Leonard Wood
ATTN: ATZT-PTS-S                       AV:   581-4245/6716
Ft Leonard Wood, MO 65473-5000         (C)   (314) 368-4245/6716
Fort McCoy
Ft McCoy
ATTN: AEZR-PTA                         AV:   280-2717/2704
Sparta, WI 54656                       (C)   (608) 388-2717/2704
Fort Sam Houston
Ft Sam Houston                         FTS   746-2121/3026
ATTN: AEZG-PTS-T                       AV:   459-3026
Ft Sam Houston, TX 78234               (C)   (512) 221-3026
Fort Sill
USAFAC & Ft Sill
ATTN: ATZR-TS                          AV:   639-4702/5222
Ft Sill, OK 73503-5100                 (C)   (405) 351-4702/5222
Fort Sheridan
Ft Sheridan                            FTS   926-2002/3667
ATTN: AFZO-PTS-AV                      AV:   459-2002/3667
Ft Sheridan, IL 60037                  (C)   (312) 926-2002/3667
Fort Carson
4th Inf Div (M) & Ft Carson            FTS   303-579-2135
ATTN: AFZC-DI-A                        AV:   691-2135
Ft Carson, CD 80913                    (C)   (303) 579-2135
Fort Douglas
US Army Support Detachment             FTS   801-582
ATTN: AFZC-SL-AV                       AV:   924-4142
Ft Douglas, UT 84113                   (C)   (801) 524-4142
Fort Huachuca
ATTN: ATSI-TD-TSA                      AV:   879-2435/2358
Ft Huachuca, AZ 85613                  (C)   (913) 684-2435/2358


Fort Irwin
National Training Center               FTS   (714) 386-3881
ATTN: AFZJ-TS-C                        AV:   470-3881/3882/3883/4360
Ft Irwin, CA 92311-5000                (C)   (714) 386-3881
Fort Lewis
I Corps & Ft Lewis                     FTS   357-7916
ATTN: AFZH-DPT-TB                      AV:   357-7916/7905
Ft Lewis, WA 98433                     (C)   (206) 967-7916/7919
Los Alamitos
USA Spt Det USAR Center                FTS   596-8261
ATTN: AFZW-ASD-TA                      AV:   972-8261
Los Alamitos, CA 90720                 (C)   (213) 596-8261
Fort Ord
7th Inf Div (Lt) & Ft Ord              FTS   242-2710
ATTN: AFZW-DFT-V                       AV:   929-2710/3279
Ft Ord, CA 93941-5111                  (C)   (408) 242-2710/3279
Presidio of San Francisco
Presidio of San Francisco              FTS   541-3996
ATTN: AFZM-PTS-S                       AV:   586-3996/2108
Presidio of San Francisco, CA 94129    (C)   (415) 561-3996/2108
Fort Riley
1st Inf Div (M) & Ft Riley             FTS   239-3477
ATTN: AFZN-CE-T                        AV:   856-3921
Ft Riley, KS 66442                     (C)   (913) 239-3921
Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico
US Army Garrison
Training & AV Support Center
ATTN: AFZR-B-PTS-T                     AV:   894-2113
Ft Buchanan, PR 00934                  (C)   (809) 783-2113
Fort Clayton (Panama)
193d Inf Bde
Ft Clayton, APO Miami 34004            (overseas) 87-5709
Fort Richardson
172d Inf Bde                           FTS   907-862
ATTN: AFTZ-PTS-TA                      AV:   317-862-1118
Ft Richardson, AK 99505


Rand Corporation                A bibliography (SB-1033 USSR) can be obained from the Rand Corp.
                                Write to:
(213) 393-0411                         Publications Department
                                       The Rand Corporation
                                       1700 Main Street
                                       Santa Monica, CA 90406
The Brookings Institution       Numerous studies pertaining to political, strategic matters on 
                                foreign countries can be obtained through the Brookings
                                Institution. Write to:
(202) 797-6000                         The Brookings Institution
                                       1775 Massachussetts Avenue, N.W.
                                       Washington, DC 20036
Victor Kamkin Bookstore         An assortment of hardback and paperback books which have been
                                translated from Russian are available through the Victor Kamkin
                                Bookstore. Subjects include economics, history, political
                                science, etc. Write to:
(301) 881-5973                         Victor Kamkin, Inc.
                                       12224 Parklawn Drive
                                       Rockville, MD 20852
American Enterprise             A good source for reference materials on foreign countries.
                                Write to:
(202) 862-5800                         American Enterprise Institute For Public Policy Research
                                       1150 17th Street, N.W.
                                       Washington, DC 20036
Defense Documentation           The DDC can provide various Rand papers, memos, and other
Center (DDC)                    reference materials. Instructions and the forms necessary for
                                establishing service can be obtained by wrting:
(202) 274-6864                         Defense Technical Info Center
                                       Cameron Station
                                       Alexandria, VA 22314


1. Simulations provide commanders and staffs high quality and cost effective training alternatives when resource constraints preclude traditional field training. The Combined Arms Center has proponency for designing and developing a variety of simulations for all maneuver echelons. Simulations assigned a GTA number are available through local TASCs. Utilization of computer assisted simulations requires coordination with the Combined Arms Center. Refer to USA Training Support Center Bulletin No. 82-1 (April 82) for additional details. Following is a brief description of available simulations:

a. PEGASUS (GTA 71-2-1) is a manual system designed to exercise brigade and/or battalion commanders and their staffs in the control and coordination of combined arms operations. The system can be used by a single battalion command group or for simultaneous execution by up to three battalion command groups and a brigade command group.

b. FIRST BATTLE (GTA 71-2-3) is a manual system designed to provide division command groups with the opportunity to control and coordinate combined arms operations in a simulated tactical environment against an appropriate opposing force. It may be used as a vehicle for training division command groups/staffs to attain and sustain ARTEP standards.

c. WAR EAGLE is a manual corps level application of the "FIRST BATTLE" low resolution simulation system now in use with all US Active and Reserve divisions. Essentially, FIRST BATTLE systems are used simultaneously to provide battle information to the division tactical operations centers and ultimately to the corps TOC.

d. CATTS (Combined Arms Tactical Training) is a computer-driven battle simulation system which trains mechanized, light infantry, armor, and cavalry squadron commanders and staffs in the control and coordination of combined arms operations.

e. CAMMS (Computer Assisted Map Maneuver Simulation) (GTA 71-2-2) is designed to exercise commanders and staffs at brigade and battalion level. CAMMS is capable of accomodating an exercise consisting of all infantry, armor, armored cavalry regiments with normal combat support (CS) and combat service support (CSS) elements in a nonnuclear environment against an appropriate enemy force.

f. ADMIN LOG (GTA 101-2-1), in conjumction with PEGASUS, CAMMS, CATTS, and FIRST BATTLE, is designed to enhance the training of battalion and brigade S1 and company level personnel by simulating the demands to manage personnel imposed on the S1 in combat.


g. LOG MOD (GTA 101-1-1) is designed as a stand alone package which can be played by a maneuver battalion S4, support platoon, and company personnel. It can be used at battalion and brigade levels in conjunction with battle simulations, CPX, FTX, and other such exercises. It can also be used as a game in itself or as an operational aid.

h. ARTBASS is a product improvement of the highly successful CATTS. ARTBASS trains the battalion command through the use of a van-portable, computer-driven, two-sided, free-play, real time battle simulation. ARTBASS will improve upon the battalion command group training methodology currently embodied in CATTS as well as allowing for on-station repetitive training sessions. System is currently being fielded.

i. BLOCKBUSTER is a battle simulation designed to teach company level leaders to plan and execute Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOLT) while using supporting artillery, attacking helicopters, close air support, air defense artillery, and engineers.

j. CAMMS II (Under Development) is a computer assisted game designed to exercise battalion, brigade, and division commanders and their staffs in the control and coordination of combined arms operations. CAMMS II, as a CPX driver, is a follow-on to CAMMS using experience gained and lessons learned from CAMMS, FIRST BATTLE, and other training simulations fielded by CATRADA.

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