NAPSNet: Reference Material
This page provides links to general reference material pertaining to Northeast Asia security issues. The documents are listed in reverse chronological order, with the most recent document listed first.
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DPRK Famine | Peace & Security | US-DPRK Relations
Erich and Marilyn Weingartner on DPRK Famine
December 13, 1999: Erich and Marilyn Weingartner, former international aid workers in Pyongyang, discuss their experiences working in the DPRK. They argue that while food will not solve the DPRK's problems, it has opened a window of opportunity for further engagement with the DPRK.
Tony Hall's Speech on DPRK Famine
September 2, 1999: Extended excerpts from US Congressman Tony Hall's speech in Tokyo following his return from a four-day visit to the DPRK. Media reports based on Hall's press conference were summarized in the Daily Report for Monday, August 30.
The Politics of the North Korean Famine
September 1, 1999: The executive summary of "The Politics of Famine in North Korea," a Special Report by Andrew Natsios, former Senior Fellow of the US Institute for Peace (USIP). The author argues that the DPRK famine has greatly eroded popular support for the DPRK government, and that much of the regime's external behavior is driven by the famine. The full paper is available on USIP's website.
Modeling Korean Unification
August 4, 1999: Excerpts from a study on the economic aspects of Korean unification, by Marcus Noland of the Institute for International Economics; Sherman Robinson of the International Food Policy Research Institute; and Tao Wang of the Institute for International Economics. The authors attempted to construct a model of possible economic integration between the ROK and the DPRK, leaving aside the question of political unification. They concluded that an economic integration would have an enormous impact on the DPRK economy, while in the ROK it could cause major changes in the distribution of income. The full paper, including data tables and references, is available in pdf format.
Collapse and Recovery of DPRK Economy
March 4, 1999: Excerpts from a study on the DPRK economy by Marcus Noland of the Institute for International Economics; Sherman Robinson of the International Food Policy Research Institute; and Tao Wang of the Institute for International Economics. The authors attempted to construct a model of the DPRK economy using available data and techniques. They then modeled various strategies of reform. They concluded that an import-oriented strategy would be more efficient for solving the DPRK's food shortages than an agricultural recovery strategy. They also argued that military demobilization would greatly improve the DPRK's economy. The full paper, including data tables and references, is available at the IIE Website.
Famine in North Korea: Causes and Cures
February 9, 1999: Excerpts from a study on the DPRK famine by Marcus Noland of the Institute for International Economics; Sherman Robinson of the International Food Policy Research Institute; and Tao Wang of the Institute for International Economics, originally presented at a seminar hosted by the International Food Policy Research Institute. The authors attempted to construct a model of the DPRK economy using available data and techniques, and then used the information thus gained to make recommendations for ending the DPRK famine. They concluded that the best strategy is a trade-oriented one that would allow the DPRK to import the food it needs. The full paper, including data tables and references, is available in pdf format.
Pyongyang Activities Report of the Food Aid Liaison Unit of WFP
December 16, 1998: The complete November 15, 1998 Pyongyang Activity Report of the Food Aid Liaison Unit (FALU) Steering Committee of the UN World Food Program (WFP). The report details FALU's activities in the DPRK over the past year, including its attempts to promote cooperation between the WFP and international nongovernmental organizations (NGO's) working in the DPRK. It also noted the decision by the DPRK to grant the first-ever foreign residence visa to a US citizen.
Survey on DPRK Refugees in the PRC
March 4, 1998: In a report prepared by the Korean Buddhist Sharing Movement on the Field Research on North Korean Refugees Interviewed in China, about 500 DPRK refugees interviewed in PRC border villages estimated a death rate of 29 percent during the previous two years of famine in North Korea. The data in the largest survey yet of DPRK refugees in the PRC conducted by the Korean Buddhist Sharing Movement provide the most comprehensive and uncensored picture of the course of the North Korean famine to which the outside world has yet had access.
Selected U.S. Non-Governmental Organizations Providing Humanitarian Aid to the DPRK
March 5, 1997: Originally compiled by The Korea Society and updated as of March 5, by Dr. Mark P. Barry, Director of Research, Summit Council for World Peace, the following list offers a wide selection of organizations that have obtained US government licenses to provide aid to the DPRK, and to which contributions are tax-deductible.
Assessment of Damage and Immediate Relief Requirements Following the Floods in the DPRK
September 12, 1995: The DPRK government reported that 75% of the country had been affected by the floods with 500,000 to 100,000 families left homeless. Damage to agricultural land, health facilities, water supply, and other infrastructure has been sustained. The UN mission focused its attention on the portion of the population that had been displaced and the damage to agricultural production estimated at 1.9 million tons lost.
Peace & Security
NDU Pacific Symposium
July 23, 1999: An executive summary of the National Defense University's 20th Annual Pacific Symposium, held in Honolulu, Hawaii March 1-2, 1999. Participants discussed possible future economic, political, and military developments in the Asia-Pacific region, and made recommendations for US policy. The summary was prepared by James R. Corcoran of the University of Hawaii. The full report is available at the National Defense University website.
Northeast Asia Nuclear Free Zone
November 28, 1997: In a report of the meeting of the Expanded Senior Panel of the Limited Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone for Northeast Asia, held in Moscow October 1-3, 1997, the conference participants recommended the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zone in Northeast Asia in a three phased plan. Starting with the formation of the League of Non-Nuclear Asian States, and followed initially by the gradual incorporation of nuclear weapons located at one military base in each country, and finally by the expansion of all points of the first two phases.
Seventh Meeting of the International Working Group on Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBM)
November 11, 1997: Summarizes the Seventh Meeting of the International Working Group on Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBM) of the Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific outlines, in which the participants were given a thorough elucidation of Japan's nuclear power industry. This was done through the auspices of the IWG in order to contribute to a greater awareness among both the policy-making and nuclear energy communities of regional concerns related to nuclear energy research and production.
List of Treaties
August 6, 1997: This is a partial list of treaties involving the control and ban of certain weapons of mass destruction, missile guidelines, and treaties aimed at promoting openness and transparency in military activities. Each treaty listed contains a synopsis of its central principles and components.
Pugwash Conference, Working Group 5's Report
August 8, 1995: Deals with the possibilities of nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia, nonintroduction of nuclear weapons by the five declared nuclear powers, and the possibility of establishing a nuclear weapons free zone (NWFZ) in the region. Looks at the causes of the arms buildup in Northeast Asia and suggests ways to reverse it. Addresses the creation of regional confidence-building measures and a regional security forum.
Electric Power Affiliate Helping to Develop Nuclear Self-Reliance
May 23, 1995: The Korea Power Engineering Co. (KOPEC), a subsidiary of the Korea Electric Power Corporation, has been the leader in engineering and consulting services for electric power projects in the ROK. It has been involved in all of the ROK's nuclear projects of most of the major thermal and hydro-electric projects. KOPEC has contributed greatly to the ROK's effort to achieve self-reliance in electric power.
Survey of Korean Experts
July 28, 1999: The pre-publication release of the report of an Independent Task Force for Managing Change on the Korean Peninsula, sponsored by the US Council on Foreign Relations. The report argues that, while the DPRK is unlikely to respond positively to William Perry's proposals, it is too early to give up hope for a comprehensive package to reduce tensions on the Korean Peninsula. It also maintains that the 1994 Agreed Framework remains the most viable alternative for preventing nuclear proliferation in the DPRK. The report is also available online at the Council on Foreign Relations website.
Survey of Korean Experts
June 17, 1999: A survey of US, European, and Asian specialists on Korea conducted at a recent conference on "Security and Stability on the Korean Peninsula" conducted by the Korean Economic Institute of America (KEI), the Center for Applied Policy Research in Munich, and the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California at San Diego on May 26 and 27. This report consists of a summary of the survey results written by Peter Beck of KEI, followed by the survey statistics.
Meeting on US Engagement with DPRK
March 3, 1999: Report of a meeting hosted by the Union of Concerned
Scientists (UCS) on October 22, 1998, on the subject of engagement with the DPRK. The meeting consisted of a small group of experts discussing the possibility of negotiating limits to the DPRK's nuclear and missile development programs. The report is also available on the UCS website.
Congressional Conditions on KEDO Funding
October 29, 1998: Excerpt of the passages dealing with funding for the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) from the House-Senate Conference Report for HR4328 (Omnibus Appropriations Bill). The excerpt outlines the conditions placed by the US Congress on continued funding of KEDO. It can be found in the October 19, 1998 Congressional Record.
Fact Sheet on US Sanctions against DPRK
July 16, 1998: Document from the US Treasury Department, Office of Foreign Assets Control, which outlines the economic sanctions which apply to the DPRK under US law. For all applicable laws, the sheet gives the category of the sanctions, a description of their effects, and the methods for revising or repealing the sanctions.
US Military Survey on Korea
January 5, 1996: The survey asked members of the US military, retired and active, questions regarding the Agreed Framework and the present military situation on the Korean Peninsula. Respondents were split on the usefulness of the Agreed Framework, with about equal portions supporting it and opposing it. However, most respondents felt that the Framework did not address military concerns enough. A majority believed that the military balance on the Peninsula favored the ROK, citing its superior economy and political stability. They also felt that development of a nuclear device by the DPRK would not have much of an effect, because the DPRK would be effectively deterred by the US.
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