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Northeast Asia Peace and Security Network
For Friday, April 10, 1998, from Berkeley, California, USA

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I. United States

II. Republic of Korea III. People's Republic of China IV. Japan V. Announcements

I. United States

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1. ROK-DPRK Talks

Reuters (Robin Bulman, "S.KOREA TO PUSH FAMILY REUNIFICATION AT TALKS," Seoul, 04/10/98) reported that ROK presidential spokesman Park Jie-won said on Friday that the ROK will prioritize the issue of separated families at bilateral talks with the DPRK. Park stated, "At the Beijing meeting, the two sides will take up the issue of fertilizer, but that will not overshadow the humanitarian concerns over the reunion of separated families." He added, "As Korea's partition has continued to go on, many people with relatives in the North have aged and some are dying, so the need is growing to help achieve reunion of separated families." He expressed optimism in the talks, saying, "We expect good results so long as the North approaches this meeting with sincerity and accepts the South's sincerity." Park Young-ho, senior research fellow at the Korea Institute for National Unification, the unification ministry's think-tank, stated, "South Korea wants to gain concessions from North Korea, so it will agree to provide the fertilizer to North Korea gradually in exchange for concessions." Likewise, Yu Suk-ryul, a professor at the ROK's Institute of Foreign Affairs and National Security, the foreign ministry's think-tank, argued, "The meeting could last just one day if North Korea says it is not going to discuss anything but fertilizer." He added, however, "I think North Korea will show some flexibility in its attitude towards the South because its situation is really bad. It has many difficulties internally." He concluded, "There could be progress, but it will be limited progress." The ROK newspaper Munhwa Ilbo said on Friday the government would send 70,000 to 80,000 tons of fertilizer to the DPRK between May and June, but a unification ministry spokesman said he was unaware of such a plan.

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2. Light-Water Reactor Project

The Los Angeles Times (Jim Mann "N. KOREA NUCLEAR DEAL AT RISK, U.S. FEARS FINANCING," Washington, 04/10/98) reported that US administration officials have said that financial problems could soon halt work on the light-water nuclear power plant under construction in the DPRK. According to unnamed US officials, the 1994 Geneva accord calls for the ROK to pay about 70 percent, Japan about 20 percent, and assorted countries the remainder of the costs for the plant. One unnamed senior US official said, "If the money isn't there, there won't be any earth moved," for the construction. He added, however, "It isn't a crisis. The problem here is Korean and Japanese mismanagement of an obligation they agreed to incur." He argued that authorities in the ROK and Japan did not start until very recently to push the reactor project with their parliaments. However, James Lilley, a former US ambassador to the ROK, recently wrote, "North Korea desperately needs smaller projects, to bring food, shelter and clothing to an economy rapidly sinking back into the Stone Age. It needs small, coal-fired power plants that fit its antiquated electric grid, not massive modern reactors." Another unnamed US official warned, however, "Not in a million years" would the DPRK agree to change the deal with the US. Administration officials now suggest the possibility that the ROK could contribute a lesser share now, then pay a larger sum in later years when its economy improves. Unnamed congressional sources said that it is unlikely Congress would make up any shortfall in ROK and Japanese funding.

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3. DPRK Spy Sentenced in ROK

Dow Jones Newswires ("S. KOREAN COURT UPHOLDS 12-YR SENTENCE FOR N. KOREAN SPY," Seoul, 04/10/98) reported that the ROK Supreme Court on Friday upheld a 12-year sentence for Chung Su- il, a former history professor who has admitted to spying for the DPRK.

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4. ROK Financial Crisis

Dow Jones Newswires ("S. KOREA TO GRILL EX-ECONOMIC OFFICIALS ABOUT FISCAL CRISIS," Seoul, 04/10/98) reported that ROK prosecutors said Friday they will question former Finance and Economy Minister Kang Kyong-shik and former Senior Presidential Economic Secretary Kim In-ho, along with six mid-level government officials, about allegations that they aggravated the ROK financial crisis by neglecting their duties. The National Audit Agency said that Kang and Kim were allegedly warned by subordinates as early as October that financial turmoil engulfing Southeast Asian countries would hit the ROK, but failed to report that to the president.

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5. US Secretary of State to Visit Asia

Reuters ("ALBRIGHT TO VISIT ASIA IN LATE APRIL," Washington, 04/09/98) reported that US officials said on Thursday that Secretary of State Madeleine Albright plans to leave Washington on April 26 and travel to Japan, the PRC, the ROK, and Mongolia. She is due to return to the US on May 3. A main focus of the trip is to work on the agenda for the late June summit in Beijing between US President Bill Clinton and PRC President Jiang Zemin. Officials said that issues under discussion include trade, the Asian financial crisis, human rights, efforts to halt the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and cooperation on Korean peninsula security. In Tokyo, Albright will reiterate the US call for more action by Japan to stimulate its economy, reform of the UN, and Japan's bid for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. In Seoul, Albright will hold talks with the new ROK government, with a main topic expected to be the resumption of bilateral ROK-DPRK dialogue and how those talks might affect the four-party peace talks.

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6. US-PRC Arms Control Talks

The United States Information Agency (Jane A. Morse, "HOLUM: CHINA 'INDISPENSABLE' TO U.S. NONPROLIFERATION EFFORTS," 04/09/98) reported that John Holum, director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and acting under secretary of state for arms control and international security affairs, told reporters at the State Department April 9 that the PRC is "indispensable" to US nonproliferation efforts. Holum stated, "China possesses all of the relevant technologies that we're concerned about. China can either be a part of the solution, or it will certainly be a part of the problem. We have a very high stake, therefore, in bringing China into the community of countries who work at controlling these technologies. The problem simply can't be solved without China." He added that the PRC has made "enormous progress" in its nonproliferation efforts, although he said it needs to do more in the chemical weapons and missile areas. Holum said that his most recent visit sought to advance "what we see as common goals," with the focus being on strengthening PRC controls on missile technology. He acknowledged, however, that it might be "some time" before the PRC agreed to become a full member of the Missile Technology Control Regime. He added, "At the same time, it is reasonable for us to focus on enlisting China in a comparable level of controls." He stated that, if the PRC agrees to tighten its missile technology controls, the US would be prepared to increase its cooperation in space launches. He emphasized, however, that the US has no plans to offer missile technology to the PRC.

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7. US Bases in Japan

The Associated Press ("US TO RETURN MARINE BASE TO JAPAN," Tokyo, 04/09/98) reported that a US military spokesman in Japan said the US agreed Thursday to return the site of a Marine training base on the island of Okinawa back to Japan. About 1,200 acres of land and another 19,500 acres of water on and around the southern Japanese island will be returned to Japanese control, the first parcel being returned under a 1996 US-Japan agreement to give Okinawa back a total of 12,000 acres of land.

II. Republic of Korea

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1. ROK-DPRK Talks

Chon Gum-chol, a vice minister-level DPRK official who led inter-Korean talks on rice assistance in Beijing in 1995, will lead a DPRK delegation to the inter-Korean dialogue slated to start in Beijing on Friday. The DPRK on Thursday sent the list of its five delegates to the Beijing talks through a telephone message delivered via a Red Cross hotline. The other delegates are Li Song-dok, director general of the Overseas Economic Commission, and Li Chang-ho, Kim Song-rim, and Li Chi-hun, all from the Korea Kwangmyong Economic Association. In the message, the DPRK proposed to hold inter-Korean talks in the China World Hotel in Beijing at 3 p.m. Friday. (Korea Times, "CHO GUM-CHOL TO LEAD N. KOREAN TEAM TO BEIJING TALKS," 04/10/98)

The ROK and the DPRK will formally enter dialogue in Beijing on Friday, which could lead to the exchange of separated family members and the reactivation of joint committees created under the 1991 "basic agreement" on inter-Korean reconciliation. A five-member delegation, led by ROK Vice Unification Minister Jeong Se-hyun, left for Beijing yesterday for the talks, which became possible after the DPRK lifted a four-year-long boycott of inter-Korean talks on April 4. (Korea Times, "BEIJING TALKS TO LEAD TO REUNION OF SEPARATED FAMILIES," 04/10/98)

Visiting US Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs Thomas Pickering yesterday expressed his support on inter-Korean talks, slated for this Saturday in Beijing. The senior American official said that Washington has strong interests in direct dialogue between the two Koreas, which would resume after almost four years to discuss fertilizer assistance and address other inter-Korean issues. (Korea Times, "PICKERING EXPRESSES SUPPORT FOR INTER-KOREAN TALKS," 04/09/98)

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2. Light-Water Reactor Project

Thomas Pickering, US Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs, met with ROK Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade Park Jong-soo and senior presidential diplomacy and security advisor Lim Dong-won, and requested that the ROK shoulder some part of the annual US$60-65 million costs of providing heavy oil to the DRPK. It was also learned that the US Government had on a previous occasion asked the ROK and Japanese Governments to provide US$20 million to share the cost of the oil. Park and Lim replied that the cost was originally guaranteed by the US Government, and it would be difficult to persuade the National Assembly and the people to consent to the burden-sharing. An official of the government said it is inappropriate for the US Government to request compensation to cover not only the cost of the light- water reactors but also that of the heavy oil just because Congress does not support the budget. The official revealed that Pickering said that the US is experiencing difficulty bearing the costs, and construction should begin based on the scheme that the ROK pays 70 percent and Japan 20 percent. The official said that the ROK side stressed that the US should take responsibility for some portion of the costs as it was a participant of the Geneva Accord in 1994. ROK officials have been embarrassed by the US intransigent stance that it will not contribute towards the cost of the reactors, which is estimated to exceed US$5 billion. (Korea Herald, "US CONTINUES TO REFUSE TO CONTRIBUTE TO REACTOR COST," 04/09/97) and (Chosun Ilbo, "US REQUESTS TO SHARE THE NORTH'S HEAVY OIL COSTS," 04/09/97)

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3. DPRK Spy Sentenced in ROK

Seoul District Criminal Court on Thursday sentenced honorary professor Koh Young-bok of Seoul National University to seven years in prison on charges of spying. Koh was indicted last December on the charge of spying for the DPRK over a 36 year period. The court said Koh must be punished for betraying the conscience of scholars and deceiving students and society as a whole, but the term was reduced from the 15 year sentence prosecutors asked for as Koh posed little danger to national security, and in light of his pain and agony as a displaced family member. The court added that the materials he passed on to the DPRK were publicly released through the media, so Koh could not be found guilty of endangering national security. Koh attracted the attention of DPRK agents in September, 1961, when he was a lecturer at Ewha Women's' University, with the story of his uncle's residence in the DPRK. From that time on he stayed in contact with six DPRK agents until last year, providing them refuge and passing information on to them. (Chosun Ilbo, "PROFESSOR SPY SENTENCED TO SEVEN YEAR IN JAIL, 04/10/98)

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4. World Day of Fast for DPRK Famine

Pope John Paul II will join a day-long fast being organized on April 25 to help draw attention to the famine in the DPRK, the Vatican agency Fides said Tuesday. Thousands of people in more than 70 cities across the world will join in the fast. Among them are former US president Jimmy Carter and the Roman Catholic Cardinal of Seoul, Stephen Kim, the agency said. The day has been organized by the ROK-based agency, International Fasting Day for North Koreans. (Korea Times, "POPE TO JOIN DAY LONG FAST TO DRAW ATTENTION TO NORTH KOREA," 04/09/98)

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5. WFP Chief to Visit ROK

Executive director Catherine Bertini of the World Food Program will visit Seoul on April 15 to brief ROK officials on her tour of the DPRK. She will discuss with the ROK's food shortage and transparency in distribution of food offered by international relief organizations. (Korea Times, "WFP CHIEF TO COME HERE AFTER NK TOUR ON FOOD SHORTAGES," 04/09/98)

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6. Hyundai Owner to Visit DPRK

Chung Joo-young, honorary chairman of Hyundai, officially announced Friday his plan to visit the DPRK. In a ceremony celebrating the publication of his memoirs, Chung said that he wishes to develop Kumkang mountain in the DPRK into a tourist resort and work towards eventual unification. Hyundai is discussing the plans for the trip with the ROK Ministry of Unification and as soon as details are finalized Chung will depart. He is planning to restart other stalled projects as well as the Kumkang project, including the construction of a freight car plant, which had previously been agreed to but was halted in 1989. (Chosun Ilbo, "HYUNDAI OWNER TO VISIT NK," 04/10/98)

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7. PRC Vice President to Visit ROK

PRC Vice President Hu Jintao, widely regarded as the PRC's 21st century leader, will make a five-day official visit to the ROK from April 26 at the invitation of ROK Acting Prime Minister Kim Jong-pil, a spokesman for the ROK Foreign Affairs-Trade Ministry announced yesterday. During his stay, Hu is scheduled to pay courtesy calls on the ROK's senior leaders, including ROK President Kim Dae-jung, and will also meet business leaders. (Korea Times, "CHINA'S 'NEXT GENERATION LEADER' HU JINTAO TO VISIT KOREA," 04/09/98)

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8. ROK Air Force Crash

A memorandum of understanding (MOA) signed between the ROK Air Force and US-based Pratt and Whitney in the purchase of engines for 120 KF-16 fighter jets is emerging as a stumbling block limiting the ROK's effort to seek compensation for two KF-16s that crashed due to allegedly defective engine parts last year. "The MOA limits P and W's liability to repairs and maintenance of up to US$12 million on its sale of engines worth US$600 million, while virtually freeing the defense contractor from all obligations for compensation in such cases as crashes or other major problems," a source at the ROK Defense Ministry said. The source said that although the deal is at best unfair and absurd at worst, the possibility of "political intervention is not excluded.'' The ministry is now considering a legal solution to have P and W pay about US$100 million in compensation for the two crashed KF-16s, each priced at US$35 million, plus losses caused by the grounding of the entire Air Force KF-16 fleet pending a probe into the cause of the crashes and replacement of defective parts. (Korea Times, "AIR FORCE'S 'UNFAIR' PACT HINDERS COMPENSATION OF 2 LOST KF-16S" 04/09/98)

III. People's Republic of China

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1. ROK-DPRK Talks

People's Daily ("TWO KOREAS AGREE TO HIGH-LEVEL TALKS," Seoul, 04/07/98, A6) reported that the ROK agreed to the DPRK's proposal to hold a vice-ministerial meeting. The ROK Government announced on April 6 that it would send a delegation of 5 members to the talks, but it suggested that the talks should be held at any place on the Korean Peninsula, including the truce village of Panmunjom. The PRC newspaper said that the DPRK side several times this year had requested the ROK through unofficial channels to provide it with 200,000 tons of fertilizer. The ROK said it could supply the above-mentioned aid if the DPRK officially made such a request. The forthcoming meeting on April 11 will discuss some concrete issues, including the conditions for fertilizer provision and the exchange of special envoys between the two Koreas.

Jie Fang Daily ("DPRK LEADER: DIALOGUE WITH ROK MUST BE HELD SOON," Pyongyang, 04/08/98, A3) reported that Kim Yong-sun, secretary of the Central Committee of the Labor Party of the DPRK, said on April 6 that the basic agreement between the two sides must be carried out as soon as possible, and for that, bilateral talks must be held soon. Kim made these remarks at a conference to commemorate Kim Il-sung's 10 guidelines for uniting the motherland.

China Daily ("KOREAS SET TALKS VENUE," Seoul, 04/08/98, A11) said that the ROK would accept the DPRK's request to set Beijing as the venue for talks. Reporting on the remarks by Kim Yong-sun, secretary of the Central Committee of the Labor Party of the DPRK, the newspaper noted that DPRK watchers in Seoul said that the DPRK had continued to press for the ROK to meet three conditions before an open dialogue could take place. According to Seoul's Naewoe Press, which monitors DPRK media, Kim Yong-sun said that the ROK's National Security Law and its spy agency, the Agency for National Security Planning, must be scrapped before an open dialogue can take place, and that the ROK must abandon its propaganda against the DPRK. Analysts said the three major ROK newspapers carrying the DPRK official's comments had ignored his mention of the conditions, though it was unclear whether the April 11 talks would be subject to those conditions.

China Daily ("KOREAN TALKS TO TAKE PLACE," Seoul, 04/09/98, A1) reported that the ROK told the DPRK that a five-member delegation headed by Vice-Unification Minister Chung Se-hyun would leave for Beijing for the historical meeting. The other four members of the delegation are Cho Kun-shik, President Kim Dae-jung's secretary for unification affairs, Kim Dong-keun, a director of the Agriculture and Forestry Ministry, and Sohn In-kyo and Suh Young-kyo, directors from the Unification Ministry. The ROK also asked the DPRK to provide the names of its delegation before the meeting. In addition, the ROK's Red Cross Society sent a letter to its DPRK counterpart on April 7 saying that it would ship 7,237 tons of relief materials--mostly rice, flour and cooking oil--from Inchon in the ROK to Nampo in the DPRK between April 15 and 21.

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2. US Troops in ROK

People's Daily ("ROK COMPANIES UNSATISFIED WITH US TROOPS," Seoul, 04/10/98, A6) reported that ROK building companies suffered losses because US troops ignored ROK rules related to construction. Some ROK contractors complained that US troops in the ROK allowed unqualified companies to enter a bid, which largely lowered the price of a construction project and further intensified the competition among the ROK companies.

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3. PRC-US Relations

China Daily ("US URGED TO END TAIWAN ARMS SALES," 04/01/98, A1) reported that in response to a question at a regular press conference in Beijing on March 31, PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao said that US arms sales to Taiwan is one of the issues to be discussed by the PRC and the US. He said that in talks with US Acting Undersecretary of State John Holum, the PRC reaffirmed its consistent stance and grave concern on the matter and urged the US to honor its commitment, gradually reducing and eventually stopping the sale of arms to Taiwan. During the consultation, the US said it would strictly abide by the three Sino-US Joint Communiques and the Sino-US Joint Statement and is prepared to discuss relevant issues with the PRC side, Zhu said.

People's Daily ("COHEN MEETS WITH WANG KE," Washington, 04/06/98, A6) reported that US Defense Secretary Cohen met with Wang Ke, Director of the General Logistic Department of the People's Liberation Army, in Washington on April 6. During the meeting, Wang said that the PRC Government and people are looking forward to US President Clinton's visit. The PRC army will contribute to the development and enhancement of PRC-US relations.

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4. PRC Military Structure

People's Daily ("NEW DEPARTMENT ESTABLISHED," Beijing, 04/06/98, A1) reported that the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army was officially established on April 5. The new department was set up according to a decision made by the Central Military Commission on April 3 to enhance the building and management of the whole army's weaponry and equipment under the centralized and unified leadership by the Central Military Commission.

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5. PRC Nuclear Industry

China Daily ("NUKE POWER CAN FILL GAPS IN SUPPLY," 04/02/98, A4) reported that Chinese scientist Yan Shuheng, secretary-general of the PRC Nuclear Society, said recently that the PRC needs to expand the peaceful use of nuclear resources to ensure that its nuclear power industry reaches advanced world levels. Yan said that nuclear power is the major component of the peaceful use of nuclear resources. Development of the nuclear power industry is crucial for coastal areas in South and East China which face shortages of coal, oil, and water resources. According to Yan, nuclear power is highly reliable compared with any other energy resources. He said nuclear power stations feature four protective layers, including a one-meter thick concrete safe layer separating radioactive matter from surrounding areas.

IV. Japan

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1. Japanese Defense Policy

The Yomiuri Shimbun ("DEFENSE AGENCY DEPUTY HEAD SAYS THAT GOVERNMENT HAS NO LEGAL OBLIGATION TO CLARIFY 'SITUATIONS IN AREAS SURROUNDING JAPAN'," 04/10/98) reported that Defense Agency Deputy Director General Masahiro Akiyama said to reporters on April 9, "It is not what the government recognizes as 'situations in areas surrounding Japan' but what the government does based on the recognition that matters. The Basic Plans for situations in areas surrounding Japan will stipulate such a recognition procedure as part of the roles of the Cabinet meeting." With regard to the decision to report to the Diet on the Basic Plans, he said, "Given the current procedures regarding mobilization of defense forces, their relations to the Diet, their influence on Japanese nationals' rights and obligations, and the need for immediate action, it is appropriate to report to the Diet afterward."

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2. Japan-US-PRC Security Dialogue

The Yomiuri Shimbun ("JAPAN-US-PRC SECURITY DIALOGUE TO BEGIN AT PRIVATE LEVEL," Washington, 04/10/98) reported that the first Japan-US-PRC security dialogue will be held in Tokyo in mid-July, according to Japanese and US governmental sources. The dialogue will begin at the private level including intellectuals close to the governments, but the Japanese and US governments want to develop the dialogue to an inter-governmental one. The first dialogue is likely to include Nobuo Matsunaga, director of the Japan Institute of International Affairs, Joseph Nye and Ezra Vogel, professors at Harvard University, and some PRC participants from the Chinese Institute of International Affairs. The dialogue will discuss security issues in Northeast Asia, environmental issues, and energy issues.

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3. Japan-ROK Relations

The Yomiuri Shimbun ("KIM DAE JUNG'S VISIT TO JAPAN IS TARGETED AT OCTOBER," 04/07/98) reported that an unidentified high-ranking Foreign Ministry official told reporters that the Japanese and ROK governments are now targeting the date of ROK President Kim Dae-jung's visit to Japan for October of this year. The official revealed that Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto, at the Japan- ROK summit in London on April 2, offered President Kim an invitation to visit Japan as a national guest and President Kim, in response, expressed his willingness to visit Japan as early as possible.

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4. US Bases in Japan

The Sankei Shimbun ("PROPOSAL OF ON-LAND HELIPORT EMERGES AS ALTERNATIVE TO OFF-SHORE HELIPORT" 04/08/98) reported that a proposal for building a heliport in Camp Schwab emerged among the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) on April 7 as an alternative to the off-shore heliport proposal which Okinawa Governor Masahide Ota has been opposed to and which, therefore, has deadlocked the US base issue. An LDP Diet member says that the new proposal has already been conveyed to the US Department of Defense through an unofficial channel. According to the report, the reasons behind the abrupt emergence of the proposal include the government's loss of hope to persuade Governor Ota to agree to the off-shore heliport proposal before the Okinawa gubernatorial election in November, building a heliport in Camp Schwab may provide the northern area of the prefecture easier access to the main land, such a heliport is less expensive than an off-shore one, and such a heliport may help shrink the area of the existing base. However, the report pointed out that US planes may cause trouble to the residential areas located between the base and the mainland and that whether the US and Governor Ota will accept the proposal is still unclear. For these reasons, some other sites are under consideration for the proposal, the report added.

V. Announcements

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1. Discussion on DPRK Famine

Pomnyun, executive director, Korean Buddhist Sharing Movement, Andrew Natsios, vice president, World Vision Relief and Development, and Young Chun, acting executive director, Institute for Strategic Reconciliation, will disclose the findings of recent interviews with over 600 DPRK refugees in the PRC border region on Monday, April 13, from 12:30 to 1:45, at 1331 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Suite 1425, Conference Rm 1, Washington, DC. The panelists will discuss the refugee survey findings in terms of death causes, coping mechanisms and population movement of survivors, and measures to prevent mass famine-related deaths this year. This development dialogue is hosted by USAID's Center for Development Information and Evaluation's Research and Reference Services Project, in collaboration with the World Hunger Education Service and the National Council for International Health. For more information contact Lane Vanderslice at 202-712-4616 or

The Korea Society and the Asian Division of the Library of Congress will host the next meeting of the Tuesday Lunch Group on Korea, to be held on Tuesday, April 14, from 12:15 - 1:15pm, at the Library of Congress, Madison Building, 6th Floor, West Dining Room, 1st and Independence Avenue SE, Washington, DC. The speakers will be Venerable Pomnyun of the Korean Buddhist Sharing Movement, Young Chun of the Institute for Strategic Reconciliation, and Andrew Natsios of World Vision. For further information on this program please contact The Korea Society at (202) 293.2174, or the Asian Division of the Library of Congress at (202) 707.5420.

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Produced by the Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development in partnership with:
The Center for International Studies,
Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
The Center for Global Communications, Tokyo, Japan
Center for American Studies,
Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Wade L. Huntley:
Berkeley, California, United States

Timothy L. Savage:
Berkeley, California, United States

Shin Dong-bom:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Choi Chung-moon:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hiroyasu Akutsu:
Tokyo, Japan

Peter Razvin:
Moscow, Russian Federation

Chunsi Wu:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Dingli Shen:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

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