NAPSNet Daily Report
wednesday, june 9, 1999


I. United States

II. Republic of Korea III. People's Republic of China IV. Russian Federation


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I. United States

1. DPRK Warships in ROK

The Associated Press (Paul Shin, "SOUTH KOREA AGAIN CITES INTRUDING NORTH KOREAN SHIPS," Seoul, 06/09/99) and Reuters (Koo Hee-jin, "TWO KOREAS IN TENSE YELLOW SEA STAND-OFF," Seoul, 06/09/99) reported that, according to ROK Defense Ministry spokesman Brigadier-General Cha Young-koo, DPRK warships entered ROK waters for the second time in two days on Wednesday. Cha said that one of the ROK's warships collided with a DPRK patrol boat as they maneuvered for position, but there was no exchange of gunfire. Cha stated, "We cannot help but be gravely concerned about the possibility that such North Korean acts could escalate South-North tensions and could provoke military confrontation." Cha added that the DPRK declined the United Nations Command Military Armistice Commission's offer to meet and discuss the ongoing stand-off.

Reuters ("N.KOREA REPORTS NEW INCURSION BY S.KOREAN WARSHIPS," Tokyo, 06/09/99) reported that the DPRK's official Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) stated on Wednesday that nine ROK warships illegally entered DPRK's waters off its west coast on Monday and five more southern warships followed suit on Tuesday. KCNA stated, "These ceaseless military provocations eloquently show that the South Korean rulers are running amok to find an excuse for unleashing a new war, instigated by the U.S. imperialists. They are well-advised to stop their rash acts, clearly mindful of the fatal consequences of these provocations."

2. Perry's Report

The United States Information Agency (James Foley, USIA Text, Washington, 06/08/99) reported that US Deputy State Department Spokesman James Foley stated that William Perry, US envoy to the DPRK, is in Washington this week to consult with members of the US Congress and to brief them on his trip to Pyongyang. Foley added that Perry will brief appropriate Senate and House committees and also meet with a number of individual senators and representatives to further consult with them on matters related to the DPRK policy. He said, "His review is not yet complete. It is in its final stages, and we expect Dr. Perry to be reporting to the President soon."

The US House International Relations Committee (Benjamin A. Gilman, "NORTH KOREA POLICY MOVING FORWARD "WITHOUT CLOSE CONSULTATION WITH CONGRESS," Washington) issued the following statement on June 9. "Today, I was given an interim report on the Administration's policy toward North Korea by former Secretary of Defense Bill Perry. I am encouraged by his dedication to the national security challenges posed to our nation by North Korea. However, I am deeply concerned by the delay in providing Congress with a final report of the policy review mandated last year in congressional legislation. It is now eight months since President Clinton appointed Secretary Perry as Special Coordinator. These lengthy delays are of concern in that the Administration has actually completed the review and is moving forward with quiet diplomatic initiatives with North Korea without the close consultation with Congress that last year's legislation intended. The purpose of the legislation was to develop a bipartisan policy that could be supported by the Congress and the White House. It appears that the Administration has launched a new policy initiative without appropriate congressional consultation. Going forward without congressional support on this challenging foreign policy issue may lead us back to the contentious state we were in last fall when congressional support for the administration's policy literally collapsed because of North Korea's provocative actions and the Administration's failing policies. There is no need to revisit that situation again. North Korea continues to be a grave threat to its neighbors, to American troops in the region, and to U.S. national security interests. North Korea policy must be: based on a step-by-step program of conditional reciprocity; backed by strengthened conventional deterrence and theater missile defense (TMD); and engender a willingness to undertake tough measures in the name of national security. Until we are given an indication that the Administration is moving in this direction, I am prepared to move forward with committee consideration of H.R. 1835, the North Korea Threat Reduction Act of 1999, which would mandate such an approach."

3. US-PRC Relations

The New York Times (David E. Sanger, "APOLOGIZING TO CHINA FOR BOMBING IS A DELICATE UNDERTAKING," Washington, 06/09/99) reported that senior US administration officials on Tuesday said that a delegation might leave for Beijing this weekend to explain the bombing of the PRC Embassy in Belgrade. According to the officials, Thomas Pickering, the US Undersecretary of State and former ambassador to India, Russia and the United Nations, will likely be the head of the delegation. However, an unnamed administration official noted that the US intelligence agencies, the State Department and the National Security Council are "are still debating exactly what to say." [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense's Early Bird news service for June 9.]

Reuters (Donna Smith, "CONGRESS URGED TO BACK CLINTON ON CHINA TRADE," Washington, 06/09/99) reported that US administration officials and business leaders urged the US Congress on Tuesday to back US President Clinton's decision to continue normal trade ties with the PRC. US Assistant Secretary of State Stanley Roth told a House of Representatives Ways and Means trade subcommittee that denying Normal Trade Relations (NTR) status to the PRC would undermine economic reforms in the PRC and force US consumers to pay higher prices for goods imported from the PRC. Roth stated that denying NTR status would further upset the currently strained US-PRC relations. Roth stated, "There are tough problems in our bilateral relationship with China. Nonetheless, continued engagement with China is the best path."

4. PRC-Russian Views of Balkan War

The Associated Press (Edith M. Lederer, "CHINA, RUSSIA DEMAND BOMBING HALT," United Nations, 06/08/99) and New York Times (Judith Miller, "CHINA HAS RESERVATIONS ABOUT 2 PROVISIONS OF PEACE PLAN," United Nations, 06/09/99) reported that the PRC and Russia demanded on Tuesday that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) stop bombing Yugoslavia before the UN Security Council formally adopts a resolution. PRC Deputy United Nations Ambassador Shen Guofang stated that the PRC government demands a bombing halt before any formal council meeting on the resolution. Shen added that the PRC also has concerns over a reference in the draft of the International Criminal Tribunal's indictment of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic for war crimes. Shen stated, "We believe that that indictment is politically motivated, so we cannot accept that." According to Shen, the PRC is also troubled that the adoption of the proposed resolution would be under Chapter 7 of the UN Charter, which makes the resolution militarily enforceable. Shen added that the PRC considers the Kosovo issue an internal affair for Yugoslavia and said, "We cannot give justification to NATO for the further bombing of Yugoslavia." Russia's UN Ambassador Sergey Lavrov reiterated the demand. Lavrov stated, "No resolution can be seriously discussed and adopted until the bombing is stopped." [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense's Early Bird news service for June 9.]

5. India-Pakistan Relations

Associated Press (Hema Shukla, "INDIA, PAKISTAN TO HOLD PEACE TALKS," Dras, India, 06/08/99) reported that Pakistani Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz agreed on Tuesday to go to New Delhi to hold peace talks with India. However, Pakistan's United Jehad Council, which represents 14 militant Kashmir groups, condemned the decision. Sayed Salahuddin, the chairman of the Council, stated, "These talks are a treacherous move by India. Bilateral talks have always failed. ... We are telling the Pakistan government that you cannot solve the Kashmir problem through talks."

The New York Times (Stephen Kinzer, "INDIA AND PAKISTAN TO DISCUSS FLARE-UP IN KASHMIR," New Delhi, 06/09/99) reported that Pakistani Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz may seek to question the legality of the division of Kashmir at the peace talks. India's Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee said that if Pakistan seeks to discuss the Kashmir issue as a whole, "the proposed talks will be over before they even begin. The subject is one and one alone: the intrusion, and how Pakistan proposes to undo it." [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense's Early Bird news service for June 9.]

II. Republic of Korea

1. DPRK Warships in ROK

The Korea Herald ("SOUTH, NORTH KOREAN NAVY BOATS COLLIDE," Seoul, 06/10/99), Chosun Ilbo (Yoo Yong-won, "NK PATROL BOATS CROSS NLL AGAIN," Seoul, 06/09/99), Joongang Ilbo (Shim Shang-bok, "FIVE NK PATROL BOATS RE-ENTER S.KOREAN WATERS," Seoul, 06/09/99), and the Korea Times ("NAVAL SHIP COLLIDES WITH NORTH KOREAN PATROL BOAT," Seoul, 06/09/99) reported that, according to a Joint Chiefs of Staff official, six DPRK naval vessels re-entered the buffer zone in the West Sea on Tuesday. The official said that although there was a minor collision between a ROK ship and a DPRK vessel, there were no casualties. The official added that following the collision DPRK vessels remained in the buffer zone, saying they were protecting the DPRK crab-fishing boats, and ignoring repeated warnings from ROK boats. An unnamed Defense Ministry official stated, "The hawks in the North, especially the military, always hate thaws between the two Koreas, and they may need a certain extent of tension to prove they are necessary." He also noted that some tension is also needed for the DPRK hierarchy to rule a population suffering from serious food shortages, adding that the DPRK received international aid after it sent spy submarines and boats to the ROK last year.

The Korea Times ("GNP HITS SUNSHINE POLICY AGAIN OVER NK VESSEL INFILTRATION," Seoul, 06/09/99) reported that on Tuesday the opposition Grand National Party (GNP), referring to the infiltration of DPRK vessels, expressed doubts over the government's Sunshine Policy. Koh Bom-hoe, vice-spokesman for GNP, stated, "The fertilizer supply and engagement policy toward the North has ended up with an infiltration by the North. What is the use of the sunshine policy?" Koh also voiced concerns over the current government's defense policy, arguing that the ROK Navy permitted the infiltrations twice within 24 hours because of laxity in its defense readiness.

2. ROK-DPRK Talks

The Korea Herald (Shin Yong-bae, "INTER-KOREAN TALKS TO BE UPGRADED," Seoul, 06/10/99) Joongang Ilbo (Kang Jooan, "SOUTH AND NORTH AGREE ON HIGH-LEVEL TALKS," Seoul, 06/09/99) and the Korea Times ("SEOUL, P'YANG SHARE UNDERSTANDING ON HI-LEVEL TALKS," Seoul, 06/09/99) reported that, according to Unification Minister Lim Dong-won, the two Koreas have "almost reached" an agreement to upgrade the inter-Korean vice ministers' talks to the ministerial or possibly prime ministerial level this year. Lim stated, "In the behind-the-scenes talks, the two Koreas discussed how to upgrade vice minister-level talks to minister- or premier-level talks. However, we didn't reach an agreement." Lim also said that the resumption of inter-Korean dialogue would lead to the reactivation of "joint committees," whose functions were brought to a halt because of the nuclear crisis in 1994.

3. DPRK Responsiveness to Engagement

The Korea Times (Son Key-young, "NK'S REACTION TO ENGAGEMENT POLICY TO TAKE TIME," Seoul, 06/09/99) and the Korea Herald ("MINISTER HONG SAYS MORE TIME NEEDED," Seoul, 06/09/99) reported that Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade Hong Soon-young said on Tuesday that it would take considerable time for the DPRK to respond to the package peace deal jointly proposed by the ROK, the US and Japan. At a meeting hosted by the Korean Association of East Asian Studies, Hong stated, "Even when it reaches an internal agreement, it will take a considerable time to show its reactions to the outside world." Hong noted that the DPRK regime faces a dilemma because it wants to survive in a fast-changing world without putting the country in jeopardy. Hong pointed that the DPRK had exhibited notable changes by engaging in dialogue on missiles, MIA (missing in action) issues and four-party peace negotiations, in addition to an agreement to hold vice minister-level talks between the two Koreas. Hong added that the ROK wants to expand its economic cooperation with the DPRK and also realize the exchange of separated families using a "method and speed that the DPRK wants."

4. ROK Aid to DPRK

The Korea Herald ("SOUTH KOREA SENDS ADDITIONAL 6,000 TONS OF FERTILIZER TO NORTH," Seoul, 06/09/99) reported that on Tuesday the ROK sent 6,000 tons of fertilizer to the DPRK. Kim Hyung-ki, assistant minister for unification policy, stated, "This marks the first aid provided by the South Korean government since the breakthrough was made in inter-Korean dialogue."

Chosun Ilbo (Kim In-ku, "TREE TEAM VISITS NK," Seoul, 06/09/99) reported that, according to the Unification Ministry, five experts on trees damaged by blight and harmful insects left ROK on Wednesday for Mt. Kumkang, DPRK. The team was led by Lee Bum-young, a project manager of the Korea Tree Protection Research Institute. The Ministry said that the team will hold a second series of talks concerning a joint-protection project for trees in Mt. Kumkang and that it will also transfer protection technology to DPRK representatives.

5. Search for Families in DPRK

Chosun Ilbo (Kim In-ku, "APPLICATIONS FOR NK FAMILY TRACES INCREASE," Seoul, 06/09/99) reported that applications to participate in the search for lost family members are flooding the Ministry of Unification (MOU). The Ministry announced that it had received a total of 275 applications (with a daily average of around 69) since last Thursday.

III. People's Republic of China

1. ROK-DPRK Talks

People's Daily ("SOUTH, NORTH KOREAS TO RESUME VICE-MINISTERIAL-LEVEL TALKS," 6/5/99, A3) reported that ROK Unification Minister Lim Dong-won announced on June 3 that the ROK and the DPRK will resume their vice-ministerial-level talks in Beijing on June 21. According Lim, this agreement was reached after three rounds of secret contacts in Beijing from May 12 to June 3.

2. DPRK Official's Visit to PRC

China Daily ("LI CHERISHES DPRK TIES," 6/4/99, A1) reported that Li Peng, chairman of the PRC Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), met Kim Yong-nam, president of the DPRK Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly on June 3. Li told Kim that he understood why the exchange of visits between the PRC and the DPRK ceased in 1994, since the people in the DPRK were in a mourning period after Kim Il-sung passed away on July 8, 1994. Li stated, "We are happy that the visit of the DPRK national delegation headed by Comrade Kim Yong-nam has resumed the high-level exchange of visits." Li added, "We support the North and South to achieve their independent peaceful reunification under the condition of non-outsider-interference." In response to Li's comments, Kim said that the passing away of Kim Il-sung was the main reason for discontinuing the exchange of visits. He said the ties between the two countries are "blood-cemented" and the DPRK thanks the PRC for its help during the Korean War. Both Li and Kim expressed their opposition to US's power politics.

People's Daily ("JIANG ZEMIN MEETS WITH KIM YONG-NAM," Beijing, 6/5/99, A1) reported that PRC President Jiang Zemin told Kim Yong-nam on June 4 that the PRC's Communist Party (CPC) and the PRC Government will continue to consolidate and strengthen ties with the DPRK. Jiang stated, "We support the North and South as they try to achieve independent and peaceful reunification, and hope the two sides will improve their relations." Jiang added that the PRC supports the DPRK to improve and finally normalize its relations with the US, Japan and the European Union. Kim told Jiang that the DPRK supports the PRC's reform and economic opening, and said that he recognized the great achievements the PRC has made.

People's Daily ("ZHU RONGJI MEETS WITH KIM YONG-NAM," Beijing, 6/5/99, A1) reported that Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji met with Kim Yong-nam in Beijing on June 4. Premier Zhu told Kim that the PRC has assisted the DPRK people in their socialist construction in past years, and said that this proves how important the PRC views relations with the DPRK. Zhu also said that the PRC Government decided to give 150,000 tons of grain and 400,000 tons of cooking coal in aid to the DPRK this year.

People's Liberation Army Daily ("CHI HAOTIAN MEETS WITH DPRK GUESTS," Beijing, 6/5/99, A1) reported that PRC's Defense Minister Chi Haotian met his DPRK counterpart Kim Il-chil on June 4. Chi told Kim that developing PRC-DPRK relations will not only accord with the fundamental interests of the two countries but also benefit peace and stability of the region and the world.

3. PRC-US Relations

People's Daily ("CHINA URGES US TO SETTLE PERMANENT NTR ISSUE," Beijing, 6/5/99, A1) reported that the PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao said on June 4 that the US needs settle the permanent normal trade relations issue with the PRC as soon as possible. Zhu said that normalized trade relations mean reciprocal and mutual trade arrangements on an equal footing agreed upon by both sides. Zhu stated, "This is the basis for normal economic and trade exchanges between the two countries, and accord with the two countries' interests and the common aspiration of the two peoples."

China Daily ("US ACT ON TAIWAN HARMS RELATIONS," 6/9/99, A1) reported that PRC Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Zhang Qiyue said on June 8 that the PRC is upset by the attempt of the US Congress to adopt the Taiwan Security Enhancement Act. The Act, which obligates the US to reinforce the military strength of Taiwan, will fan the flame of "Taiwan independence" promoters, undermine the healthy development of cross-Straits relations, jeopardize peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region and lead to severe damage of Sino-US relations. Zhang added that the Act violates the three joint communiques between the PRC and the US. Zhang said that the PRC hopes the US administration will clearly state its opposition to the Act and take effective measures to prevent the Act from being adopted.

4. PRC Response to Cox Report

China Daily ("COX REPORT INSULTS CHINA," Zhao Huanxin, 6/7/99, A1) reported that China Aerospace Corp (CASC) spokeswoman Zhang Lihui said on June 6 that the PRC has evidence to prove that charges in the Cox Report leveled against the CASC are fabrications. Zhang stated, "Without any substantive fact, the Cox Report subjectively dished out the claim that China's space sector had illegally acquired so-called 'sensitive technologies' from the US ever since the 1950s." Zhang said that the "groundless" assertions have severely damaged the image and commercial reputation of the CASC. Zhang added that it was impossible for the alleged "sensitive technologies" leaks to have occurred through commercial launch services. Zhang noted that the US satellites entered the PRC free of customs checks, and were stored under the around-the-checks protection of a sophisticated US surveillance system. Zhang said, "The CASC will publish more details and facts via the Internet and other media to prove that China's space undertakings have been developed based wholly on the country's own strengths." The CASC website is:

5. Across-Taiwan Straits Relations

People's Daily ("ARATS TELLS SEF OF SPY'S WHEREABOUTS," Beijing, 6/9/99, A4) reported that Beijing-based Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS) gave an answer on June 8 to the letter by Taipei-based Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF) on March 31, which asked the whereabouts of Taiwan resident Jiang Renrui. ARATS said in the letter that Jiang Renrui was charged with conducting espionage activities in the mainland and was arrested on April 1. Jiang, born on Jan. 30 1959, confessed to all of his spying activities and is now under investigation.

6. US-Japan Defense Cooperation

People's Daily ("RUSSIA ASKS FOR JAPANESE AND US OFFICIAL STATEMENT ON DEFENSE ALLIANCE," Moscow, 6/8/99, A1) reported that the Russian Foreign Ministry on June 7 asked Japan and the US to publish an official statement saying that the new US-Japan defense cooperation guidelines, when implemented, will not be directed against Russia. The Russian statement published on June 7 points out that the operation range of the Japan-US defense alliance includes the entire Asia-Pacific region. Moreover, the statement says, some high-level politicians of Japan and the US have argued that the region of joint responsibility includes the Far East area of Russia.

China Daily carried a commentary written by Ke Hui "DEFENSE BILLS FAN INSTABILITY," Ke Hui, 6/8/99, A4) arguing that the passage of bills related to the Guidelines for Japan-US Defense Cooperation by the Japanese Diet is not conducive to peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Ke, who is a research fellow with the China Foundation for International and Strategic Studies, said that three objectives have encouraged the US and Japan to consolidate their military cooperation. Those objectives are: to establish military superiority in the Asia-Pacific region, to give Japan more excuses to interfere with its neighbors' internal affairs, and to give Japanese forces a greater role in planting their flag outside Japan. Ke argued that the guidelines will on no account contribute to peace and stability in the Asia- Pacific region, and that the inevitable outcome will be that the DPRK quickens steps to build up its defense capability. Ke concluded that Japan's attempts to establish military superiority and contain the PRC are not in its own interest.

IV. Russian Federation

1. ROK-DPRK Meeting to be Held in Beijing

Izvestia's Yury Savenkov ("KOREANS OF THE NORTH AND THE SOUTH TO MEET IN BEIJING", Moscow, 3, 6/3/99) reported that, according to ROK governmental sources, the ROK and the DPRK "are on the verge of signing an agreement on resumption of the deputy minister level dialogue severed over a year ago." The ROK media reported that the event would take place June 21 in Beijing. Many observers stress the key role of the PRC in facilitating the expected ROK-DPRK detente. On 6/3-7/99 the PRC will host a DPRK delegation headed by Kim Yon-nam, DPRK Parliament Chairman. As DPRK leader Kim Jong-il does not go abroad, that delegation is the highest since 1991. William Perry, former US Defense Secretary, recently spent several days in Pyongyang and tried to meet Kim Jong- il to convey US President Bill Clinton's personal message. The United States is now moving toward a partial lifting of the economic sanctions against the DPRK and even establishment of diplomatic relations, provided the DPRK dissolves all suspicions concerning its nuclear and missile programs. The RF as well strives for a balance in its relations with the DPRK and the ROK. A new RF-DPRK treaty has been initialed, which is ideology-free and not aimed against the third parties. During ROK President Kim Dae-jung's recent visit to Moscow a joint statement was signed, containing among other things "Seoul's consent to Russia's more active participation in the affairs of the region and first of all those in the Korean Peninsula".

2. New ROK Intelligence Chief

Nezavisimoye voyennoye obozreniye ("SOUTH KOREAN INTELLIGENCE CHIEF CHANGED", Moscow, 1, 6/4-10/99, #21(144)) reported that General Colonel Chung Yon-taek, 63, with the support of ROK President Kim Dae-jung, has become the ROK National Intelligence Service Chief. His predecessor, Lee Yong-chung, stayed in office for 15 months. Chung Yon-taek in the past unearthed flagrant violations in the ROK Defense Ministry which helped Kim Dae-jung in his victorious presidential campaign of 1997. Experts do not expect any major changes in the NIS. The DPRK, the PRC and the RF are to remain the priorities of its activities.

3. RF ICBM Test Launch

Izvestia's Yury Golotyuk ("BUT WE MAKE MISSILES INSTEAD", Moscow, 1, 6/5/99) reported that on 6/3/99 the RF Strategic Missile Forces carried out a test launch of a Topol-M ICBM from the Yuzhnaya-1 start position at Plesetsk missile test launching site in the RF North. The warhead hit its target at the Kura test site in the Kamchatka Peninsula. Several new features were successfully tested, including a new "Terminator" system for maintaining a constant link between the missile and orbiting "Glonass" navigation satellites, and a complex routing ability to help avoid hostile anti-missile defenses. This latter feature reflects concerns that "some problems have emerged with the US-Russian ABM Treaty of 1972." The report noted that the new missile will be brought into service with no more than ten test launches (as opposed to 20 to 30 test launches in the past) due to financial constraints. Two more tests are planned for this year and a final one will be made in 2000. The Topol-M is a 3-stage solid-fuel missile with a 1 ton warhead capacity and a range of over 10,000 kilometers.

4. RF Official Visits to the PRC

Nezavisimaia gazeta ("RF FOREIGN MINISTRY HEAD ARRIVED IN BEIJING", Moscow, 1, 6/2/99) reported that Igor Ivanov, the RF Foreign Minister, arrived yesterday in Beijing on a three day official visit in preparation for the second RF-PRC summit. Bilateral relations are to be discussed, and key attention will be paid to international problems. On arrival Ivanov commented that the situation in Yugoslavia is complicated and he and his Chinese counterparts, "as partners and as permanent members of the UN Security Council, will have a detailed exchange of opinions in order to define our policy line."

Izvestia's Yury Golotyuk ("G.R.U. CHIEF HOLDS TALKS IN BEIJING", Moscow, 1, 6/2/99) reported that Valentin Korabelnikov, Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces and Chief, Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU) of the General Staff, held talks in Beijing with Fu Quan, Chief of the General Staff of the People's Liberation Army of China. The report, citing the PRC's Xinhua News Agency, said only that the two discussed the situation in the Balkans and came to a consensus that the actions by the United States attempting to establish unipolar hegemony "will encounter a sharp protest on the part of the peace- loving forces."

5. Japanese Foreign Minister in the RF

Segodnya's Georgy Bovt ("DREAMS ARE NOT HARMFUL", Moscow, 3, 6/1/99) reported on the visit to the RF last weekend of Masahiko Komura, Japanese Foreign Minister. The report commented that "in Tokyo they still pretend that a [bilateral peace] treaty can be concluded in 2000," but that the two countries' proposals on outstanding territorial disputes are incompatible. Also, due to the radical reshuffle of the RF Government, Mr.Komura had no negotiating partners in Moscow except Igor Ivanov, the RF Foreign Minister. The report noted that in this context, "even the readiness expressed by the Japanese party to assist RF-IMF negotiations is of small value, as it is unclear who precisely in Moscow is to be assisted and what the Japanese can do about Duma reluctance to adopt the package negotiated with the IMF." Less ambitious but more specific projects were also on the table, including Japanese US$70 million worth participation in utilization of nuclear waste from RF Pacific Fleet submarines and visits of Japanese of South Kuril origin to the isles this summer.

Nezavisimaia gazeta's Viktor Sokolov ("THE GOAL OF JAPANESE DIPLOMACY", Moscow, 6, 6/1/99) reported that the most prominent feature of the Moscow visit by Masahiko Komura, Japanese Foreign Minister, was that the modernization of the US-Japan military alliance pushed territorial disputes into the background. Judging by Mr. Komura's comments at a press conference, "Japan was not too much pleased with the statements voiced about a possible unification of Russia, India and China into a single block opposing the NATO." At the same time, Komura said the RF should not be worried about the matter of the US-Japan alliance sphere of application, because Japan in any case would adhere to its main defense guidelines stipulating that force can be used only in case of a direct attack on Japan. Otherwise, Komura said, only non-military means would be used in "the adjacent areas," and Japan will never send its Armed Forces beyond its territory, thus distinguishing the US-Japan alliance from NATO.

6. RF Views of Tiananmen Anniversary

Segodnya ("CHINESE POLICE DRAGNETTING THE OPPOSITION", Moscow, 3, 6/5/99) reported that seven more dissenters had been detained in the PRC, one for trying to go into a Beijing Christian church to pray for the Tiananmen victims of 1989. Also dozens of dissenters were detained in various provinces. Many of the approximately 130 persons detained to prevent commemorative protests are still in prison.

Izvestia's Yury Savenkov ("BEIJING'S BLACK DAY", Moscow, 4, 6/4/99) reported that on the eve of the 10th anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square events, some survivors and relatives of those killed appealed to the authorities to proclaim the date as the Condolence Day and to undertake criminal investigation into the circumstances of the events. Izvestia's author discussed his work in Beijing 10 years ago and recalled the details of the military attack on the protesting students. Present assessments of the Tiananmen events widely differ inside the PRC, with some people seeing no sense in digging up the past, "as a lot of other things have happed in China since then." As for the present, Izvestia's author quoted one of his Beijing acquaintances as saying: "The pendulum is swinging in the direction the students pointed to. But it is slower than they wanted it to be. Young people are too impatient."

Segodnya's Georgy Bovt and Aleksandr Chudodeyev ("SOCIAL CONTRACT OF POLITICAL TRANQUILLITY", Moscow, 5, 6/4/99) commented on the 10th anniversary of the Tiananmen events of 1989, which some 300 to 400 people were killed and 7000 wounded by PRC troops. The author commented that the events produced "a social contract of consensus," the essence of which is that PRC citizens can live the way they like, make money, and go abroad, so long as they do not challenge the authority of the government. The author noted that the "majority of the Chinese agreed with the contract, including many of those who protested in spring of 1989." However, the author argued against those who advocate "the Chinese way" as applicable to the RF, because "not only economic, but political freedoms have turned into a mirage. As China's experience testifies, such a path sooner or later leads to Tiananmen, where the authorities and the people will finally conclude a new social contract."

Nezavisimaia gazeta's Yury Ukhtomsky ("TWO COUNTRIES, TWO SHOOTINGS", Beijing - Moscow, 6, 6/3/99) commented on the 10th anniversary of the Tiananmen events, extensively quoting an unnamed Beijing journalistic acquaintance of the author. The Beijing journalist compared Deng Xiaoping and Mikhail Gorbachev, repudiating the latter's course. "Had Gorbachev openly led an attempt to stop the disintegration of the Soviet Union, that attempt would have surely been a success. And there would have been incomparably less blood shed later than there has been in various 'post-Soviet republics' and 'hot spots'. There would have been no shameful expedition against Chechnya, no terrible Moscow massacre in 1993." The Beijing journalist characterized Gorbachev as acting the "same way as Mao Zedong did, when he unleashed the 10 years-long trouble. ... The present- day Russia to me seems a lot like China at the end of the Cultural Revolution."

7. Tokyo Governor on Japanese Foreign Policy

Izvestia's Vasily Golovnin ("TOKYO GOVERNOR PROMISES TROUBLE TO AMERICANS", Tokyo, 3, 6/3/99) reported on the activities of Sintaro Ishihara, 66, recently elected Tokyo Governor. The report described Ishihara as "a highly popular nationalist writer" and until now a most active Liberal Democratic Party MP. However, he has broken ranks with the LDP in questioning the continued presence of the US Air Force Base at Yokota. Mr.Ishihara claims the US military has no right to solely possess "such treasure," and some of the base should be made available to alleviate a constraints at Tokyo's civilian airport. His widely popular book "The Japan that Can Say 'No,'" co-authored with Akio Morita, Sony President, promotes the simple idea that, while not breaking its alliance with the US, Japan is "fully entitled to disagree with Washington if deemed necessary." Yet, Izvestia's author warned, Mr.Ishihara "should not be enlisted to the ranks of 'fighters against American imperialism' similar to the now almost extinct leftists," noting Ishihara's staunch anti-communism and his position that there was no Japanese aggression in China in the 1930s and 1940s. The author likened Ishihara's denial that Japanese troops massacred 300 thousand people in 1937 in the Chinese city of Nanking to "some Germans' attempts to say there were no Nazi death-camps."

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Lee Dong-young:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hiroyasu Akutsu:
Tokyo, Japan

Peter Razvin:
Moscow, Russian Federation

Chunsi Wu:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Dingli Shen:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

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