NAPSNet Daily Report
wednesday, january 26, 2000

I. United States

II. Republic of Korea III. People's Republic of China IV. Russian Federation

South Asian Nuclear Dialogue

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I. United States

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1. ROK-DPRK Relations

Agence France Presse ("S. KOREAN PRESIDENT PLEDGES PEACE WITH N. KOREA, REFORM AS NEW YEAR GOALS," Seoul, 1/26/00) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-Jung said Wednesday at an annual press conference for foreign reporters that forging peace with the DPRK and speeding up ROK's economic reconstruction are the ROK's top priorities for the new year. Kim said he would make a final decision on when and how to propose a promised summit with DPRK leader Kim Jong-il after ROK general elections in April. Kim stated, "establishing peace of the Korean Peninsula is one of our main goals. We must work for coexistence and peaceful cooperation to put an end to the animosities of the last 50 years." He called for the two Koreas to sign an agreement to avoid double taxation and bolster growing inter-Korean trade and economic exchange which reached a record US$330 million last year.

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2. Cross-Straits Relations

Reuters ("TAIWAN SAYS CHINA AIMS TO FORCE TALKS IN 2000," Taipei, 1/26/00) reported that Ting Yu-chou, director-general of the Taiwanese National Security Bureau, said on Wednesday that the PRC will make a concerted effort to draw Taiwan into political talks and opening direct trade, transport and postal links this year. However, Ting said that Taiwan will also be prepared if the PRC decides to attack Taiwan. Ting said, "Chinese Communists have two objectives toward Taiwan this year. One is to break the stalemate to begin so-called political negotiations after the presidential elections. The second is to open the door for three direct links after (the sides') expected entry to the World Trade Organization by the end of this year. These are their hopes. There is no guarantee the Chinese Communists will get what they want." Unlike the presidential elections in 1996 when the PRC fired unarmed missiles into the Taiwan Straits, Ting said he expected the political situation to remain stable in the run up to the March vote.

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3. US-PRC Military Talks

Agence France Presse ("US, CHINESE MILITARY TALKS GET UNDERWAY DESPITE SNOWSTORM," Washington, 1/26/00) reported that US officials said that PRC Lieutenant General Xiong Guangkai, the People's Liberation Army deputy chief of staff for intelligence, met with US Under Secretary of Defense Walter Slocombe at the US Defense Department on January 25 to begin talks aimed at mending the US-PRC military relationship. A senior White House official said that the talks would focus on military relations. The official added that even though the talks would include a broader exchange of views on Asian regional and strategic issues, they are not aimed at resolving those issues. The official said, "this meeting symbolizes and marks a step in a process in re-establishing a normal exchange between the United States and China." US Defense Department officials have maintained a virtual news blackout on the politically sensitive talks.

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4. Japanese Atrocities in World War II

Agence France Presse ("CHINESE FOREIGN MINISTER SUMMONS JAPANESE AMBASSADOR OVER NANJING ROW," Beijing, 1/26/00) and Reuters ("CHINESE FOREIGN MINISTER SUMMONS JAPANESE AMBASSADOR OVER NANJING ROW," Beijing, 1/26/00) reported that PRC Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan on Wednesday summoned Japanese Ambassador to the PRC Sakutaro Tanino to express strong indignation over a gathering of right-wingers in Osaka that questioned the 1937 Nanjing Massacre. The Japanese government refused to stop the meeting on the grounds it would violate the constitutionally protected right of freedom of speech. Tang was quoted by the Xinhua news agency as telling Sakutaro that the forum last weekend was a "perverse act" against which the PRC had "time and again lodged solemn complaints." Tang criticized the Japanese government for using the "pretext of freedom of speech" in refusing to interfere in the symposium. Tang also criticized a decision by Japan's Supreme Court, which upheld a defamation suit against Azuma Shiro, a former Japanese soldier who was sued for naming names in his personal accounts of the atrocity.

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5. Spratly Islands Dispute

Agence France Presse ("PHILIPPINE NAVY TO STEP UP PATROLS IN DISPUTED SOUTH CHINA SEA SHOAL," Manila, 1/26/00) reported that Philippine officials said Wednesday that they will lodge a diplomatic protest and step up patrols around a disputed South China Sea shoal to deter the PRC from poaching and building structures on the outcrop. Regarding the two PRC fishing ships trapped by the Philippine Navy on January 25, Philippine Defense Secretary Orlando Mercado told reporters after meeting with Philippine Foreign Secretary Domingo Siazon, "the two Chinese fishing boats are still there and the navy will send a small boat to enter the shoal and convince or persuade the vessels to leave. The instructions that have been given to the navy is to try to use persuasive methods that are normal with unarmed fishing boats." Mercado also said they were trying to use persuasion to avoid traffic incidents such as those that occurred last year when two PRC fishing vessels were rammed and sunk by the Philippine navy in the area; however, if they refuse to leave then the navy "will have to assert" Philippine authority by arresting them. Mercado said the navy is under orders to "make extra efforts in patrolling the area to prevent possible construction activities that may take place." Siazon said Wednesday, "whenever we have intrusions by foreign vessels, we protest, we send a note verbally because Scarborough is still part of Philippine territory." House of Representatives member Roilo Golez, chairman of the committee on public order, stated, "This is very alarming. I think we should protest. We should not allow this, otherwise Scarborough Shoal would go the way of Mischief Reef."

II. Republic of Korea

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1. DPRK-US Talks

The Korea Herald (Kim Ji-ho, "NORTH KOREA-U.S. RESUME BERLIN TALKS BUT UNLIKELY TO MAKE PROGRESS ON TIES," Seoul, 01/27/00) and The Korea Times (Son Key-young, "NK RESUMES TALKS WITH US IN BERLIN," Seoul, 01/26/00) reported that ROK officials said on Tuesday that the US and the DPRK resumed their temporarily suspended talks in Berlin early on Wednesday after the two sides received new directives from their respective governments. Predicting the ongoing round of US-DPRK talks would be another "tug-of-war," an ROK foreign ministry official in Seoul said, "The two sides do not appear to have significantly narrowed their differences on the fourth day of the meeting, and it will take considerably more time (to see results)." He added, "They seem to continue along parallel lines, failing to make compromises by meeting each other half-way."

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2. DPRK-ROK Economic Cooperation

The Korea Herald (Kim Ji-ho, "INTER-KOREAN TRADE JUMPS 50.2 PERCENT," Seoul, 01/27/99) reported that the ROK Unification Ministry said on Tuesday that trade between the ROK and the DPRK last year was estimated at US$333 million, up 50.2 percent from 1998. The ROK imported US$121 million worth of goods from the DPRK, an increase of 31.8-percent, and exported goods worth US$211 million, a 63.4 percent rise, officials said. "The amount of exports was 8.1 percent greater than it was in 1997, when inter-Korean trade hit an all-time high," said Hwang Ha-soo, director general at the ministry's Inter-Korean Exchanges and Cooperation Bureau. Hwang attributed the trade increase to the drastic expansion of "processing-on-commission" deals and the importation of various primary agricultural, forestry and fisheries products from the DPRK. "The trade has also increased thanks to the South's recovery from the economic crisis, our fertilizer aid to the North, and the boom in inter-Korean business ventures, which require the massive transfer of materials," the official added. The ROK recorded a surplus of US$90 million in two-way trade with the DPRK, excluding humanitarian aid. The DPRK, however, enjoyed net profits of US$53 million from inter-Korean trade last year, up 32.7 percent from 1998, officials said. The processing-on-commission business, in which ROK firms supply equipment and materials to use DPRK labor, will be further expanded as there has been a sharp increase in the number of firms wanting to conduct these ventures, he added.

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3. DPRK Nationals in PRC

Joongang Ilbo (Lee Young-jong, "NK STRESSES CHINA'S REPATRIATION 'INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE'," Seoul, 01/25/99) reported that the DPRK on Tuesday insisted that the repatriation of DPRK defectors from the PRC followed international practices. It also claimed that the recent mass outflow of refugees from the DPRK to northeastern district of the PRC was an illusion. "Many Korean residents in the northeastern district of China migrated during the 1940s, under the Japanese colonization of Korea. Most of them still have a hometown and relatives in the northern part of North Korea," said a spokesman for DPRK's Human Research Association. "It is inaccurate to call people who are visiting China to meet their relatives or who broke the law crossing the border 'refugees.' This is a South Korean conspiracy to destroy the amicable relationship between ourselves and China," he added.

III. People's Republic of China

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1. ROK-PRC Relations

People's Daily (Li Shijia, "STATE COUNCILOR MEETS ROK MINISTER," Beijing, 1/25/00, P4) reported that PRC State Councilor Luo Gan met in Beijing on January 24 with Kim Jung-Kil, justice minister of the ROK. Both sides exchanged views on the cooperation between the judicial departments of the two countries, and other issues of common interest. Kim Jung-Kil is in Beijing at the invitation of Gao Changli, PRC minister of justice. During his trip, Kim and Gao signed an agreement on judicial cooperation between the PRC and the ROK.

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2. PRC-US Relations

China Daily ("ISSUES HAMPER RELATIONS," Washington DC, 1/22/00, P1) reported that Liu Xiaoming, minister of the PRC Embassy to the US, said on January 19 that Sino-US relations are making progress but are still dogged by several issues. According to January 20's report by China News Service, Liu cited as one issue the US intention to get a draft resolution on the PRC past the UN Commission on Human Rights. Another issue, he said, is some US congressional representatives' effort to stop the PRC from getting permanent Normal Trade Relations with the US. Liu added that the US failure to honor a commitment concerning weapons sales to Taiwan hurts relations as well. The report quoted Liu as saying, however, that bilateral ties are gradually getting back on track. He noted an upcoming US visit by Lieutenant General Xiong Guangkai suggests good will.

China Daily (Shao Zongwei, "FM BASHES EU OVER RIGHTS," 1/26/00, P1) reported that PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao at a news briefing on January 25 gave details about a US-based Chinese librarian arrested last December for smuggling state secrets. Since 1996, Song Yongyi with Dickinson University in the US state of Pennsylvania illegally bought and passed on more than 320 kilograms of secret State documents and materials to other countries, the report said. Zhu said that the materials Song collected spanned 1966 to 1982, exceeding the period of the "Cultural Revolution (1966-76)," which Song claimed to be researching. Song was detained because he violated the PRC's Criminal Law and posed threats to national security, the report said. Song has admitted to all the charges, Zhu said.

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3. PRC-US Military Exchange

China Daily (Xu Yang, "VISIT TO RESTART MILITARY TALKS," 1/22/00, P1) reported that a six-member senior military delegation left on the morning of January 22 for the US to resume bilateral military talks. This is the first formal high-level military contact between the two nations since the US-led NATO bombed the PRC Embassy in Belgrade in May. Lieutenant General Xiong Guangkai, deputy general chief of staff, leads the delegation, the newspaper said. During the visit, the armed forces of both nations will exchange "views of mutual concern," a PRC defense ministry statement said on January 21. The Chinese delegation's itinerary was not provided, the report said.

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4. Japanese Atrocities in World War II

People's Daily ("SPOKESMAN ZHU BANGZAO ON THE DENIAL OF WAR-TIME ATROCITIES IN JAPAN," Beijing, 1/24/00, P1) reported that PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao said on January 23 that the gathering in Osaka on January 23 by a handful of Japanese right-wing activists and the court ruling rejecting the statement of a former Japanese soldier Azuma Shiro have seriously hurt the feelings of the Chinese people and disturbed the development of Sino-Japanese relations in the normal course. The Chinese government and people hereby express their extreme indignation and strong condemnation, the spokesman said. He pointed out that the Japanese government and Osaka authorities have taken a laissez-faire attitude toward this sensitive issue, totally disregarding the serious representations repeatedly made by the Chinese side. The Japanese government and Osaka authorities must be held responsible for the current situation, according to him. Historical issues have always remained the major problems that disturb and impact the normal development of the Sino-Japanese relations, he said. Today, after more than half a century, there often emerges an adverse current in Japan, openly calling back and defending militarism, denying historical facts and going against people's common knowledge, he said. This fact cannot but invite deep thought and call on the Chinese people and the people of the whole world at large to maintain sharp vigilance, the spokesman said. He demanded that the Japanese government take immediate measures to check the domestic adverse current of denying the history of aggression, avert the very bad effect of this gathering, and be effectively responsible to ensure that such incident never occurs in the future again.

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5. PRC-Japan Environmental Cooperation

China Daily (Liang Chao, "JAPAN DONATES TO IBIS PROJECT," 1/22/00, P2) reported that a US$73,831 grant from the Japanese Government will be used for extension projects to protect the natural habitat of the crested ibis, one of the world's rarest species, in Northwest PRC's Shaanxi Province. Speaking at a signing ceremony for the funds, Wang Shousen, vice-governor of Shaanxi and Sugimoto Nobuyuki, minister of the Japanese Embassy in Beijing, said that they hope the money will augment the PRC's efforts to protect some 200 crested ibis, the only population of its species in the world. The Japanese aid is one of the 33 projects between the two governments agreed upon during PRC President Jiang Zemin's 1998 official visit to Japan, sources with the Japanese Embassy said.

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6. PRC's Accession to WTO

China Daily ("PROGRESS MAKE IN TALKS WITH EU," Brussels, 1/26/00, P3) reported that the PRC and the European Union (EU) have made progress in their negotiations on the PRC's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), European Commission (EC) spokesman Anthony Gooch said on January 25. Gooch described the talks as "positive and constructive" after visiting PRC Vice-Premier Wu Bangguo met with EU Trade Commissioner Pascal Lamy, who said that the talks were "business-like and to-the-point." With talks progressing, the two sides agreed to prolong the discussion for half a day until January 26.

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7. Across-Taiwan Straits Relations

People's Daily (Cai Zimin, "GOING WITH TIDE OF HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT, REALIZING MOTHERLAND'S COMPLETE REUNIFICATION," 1/24/00, P3) carried an opinion article which said that the key to the development trend of cross-Strait relations lies in the growth of comprehensive national strength of China's mainland. In recent years, mutual economic promotion and the considerable increase in personnel contacts and frequent exchanges indicate that developing cross-Strait relations represent the popular feeling and the general trend, the article said. It said that the solutions of the issues of Hong Kong and Macao have provided both experience for the solution of the Taiwan question and an example of great value for reference and comparison. It added that PRC President Jiang Zemin's speech realistically emphasized the particularity in solving the Taiwan issue, calling for full attention to the characteristics of Taiwan that are different from those of Hong Kong and Macao, and clearly indicating that solving the Taiwan issue in accordance with the "one country, two systems" principle and realizing peaceful reunification can be more flexible than in the case of Hong Kong and Macao. "One country" means pursuing reunification and safeguarding China's sovereignty and territorial integrity. Taiwan compatriots can, together with all Chinese people, enjoy China's dignity and honor in the international arena, the article said. The "two systems" means that after reunification, under the one China principle, Taiwan can keep its existing social system unchanged, without affecting its living and development space, according to the article. It said that the present main trend of thought of the Taiwan society is the desire for peace, stability and development. And the principles of "peaceful reunification, one country, two systems" exactly conform to the main trend of thought of the Taiwan society, it said. The "peaceful reunification, one country, two systems" principles represent popular sentiment, the righteous cause of the nation, and the trend of historical development, it concluded.

IV. Russian Federation

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1. DPRK Foreign Policy

Izvestia's Yury Savenkov ("THE FIRST FOREIGN TRIP OF 'THE WARLORD BORN OF HEAVEN'," Moscow, 4, 01/19/00) reported that this year DPRK supreme leader Kim Jong-il planned to make his first official visit to the PRC, which is to be his first ever visit abroad in that capacity. According to Izvestia's author, coupled with DPRK- ROK rapprochement, US partial lifting of anti-DPRK sanctions, moves toward normalization of DPRK-Japanese relations, and the recent establishment of DPRK-Italian diplomatic relations, this trip means that "cracks are appearing in the wall isolating North Korea from the world." According to an RF diplomat, "rumors about Kim Jong-il's health problems and complexes (low height, problems with speech, etc.) are greatly exaggerated."

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2. US Contingency Plans for Korea

Duel's Vladimir Kutakhov ("THEY TRY TO FRIGHTEN," Moscow, 7, January 2000, #3(146) reported, with a reference to the ROK Defense Ministry, that the "Pentagon has got a special plan for urgent transfer of reinforcements from the continental part of the USA in case a large-scale war flared up on the Korean Peninsula." The first to come in 13 hours would be US fighter warplanes. In 10 days the Pacific Command of the US Armed Forces would be able to deliver weapons and equipment for an army brigade. In 13 days a strike aircraft task force is to be expected. In 3 months the US would be able to bring to the south of the Peninsula 600,000 troops, 1200 warplanes and 5 strike aircraft task forces, each including an aircraft carrier, two ships armed with multipurpose anti-aircraft missile system, two cruisers, three destroyers, two frigates, two nuclear submarines, four auxiliary ships and various aircraft.

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3. PRC-ROK Military Talks

Nezavisimaia Gazeta's M.O. ("CHINESE MINISTER'S HISTORICAL VISIT," Moscow, 6, 01/20/00) reported that PRC Defense Minister Chi Haotian's official 5-day visit to the ROK was the first ever visit of a PRC governmental representative to the ROK in 50 years since the end of the Korean War. Chi brought a message from PRC Chairman Jiang Zemin to ROK President Kim Dae-jung. He was also to discuss "the issues of North Korean missiles, as well as China's unwillingness to join regional anti-missile defense programs" with the ROK Defense Minister.

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4. RF-PRC Military Talks

Nezavisimaia Gazeta's Aleksandr Shaburkin ("CHINA REMAINS RUSSIA'S STRATEGIC PARTNER," Moscow, 2, 01/19/00) reported on PRC Defense Minister Chi Haotian's visit to the RF. At his meeting with Chi, acting RF President Vladimir Putin said there's a "good, perfect" basis existing for RF-PRC relations. He confirmed the RF's "adherence to all agreements reached at the previous summits." The parties confirmed the RF's sovereignty over Chechnya and the PRC's sovereignty over Taiwan. Both expressed their negative attitude to the US system of national anti-missile defense. "During the visit an agreement was reached on adequate measures, which could mean a re- orientation of the previously signed documents concerning peaceful exploration of outer space toward organization of joint projects to use it for military purposes." General Su Mingtai, one of the supreme chiefs of the PRC Strategic Missile Force, was among the delegation. According to Ilya Klebanov, RF Vice Premier, the RF and the PRC "are close enough" to an agreement on joint use of the GLONASS space satellite system, which is similar to US GPS navigation system. New PRC orders for RF arms exports were touched upon, in particular for destroyers and armored vehicles, although the issues are to be discussed in more detail during the RF delegation's forthcoming visit to the PRC. Vladimir Putin said that a visit to the PRC would be "one of the first trips of the new president of Russia."

Izvestia's Yury Golotyuk ("MOSCOW-BEIJING: FRIENDSHIP IN THE OUTER SPACE," Moscow, 2, 01/20/00) reported that "military sources so far have been emphatically refusing to comment on the details of the future union with Beijing in the outer space. That's understandable, because those are to be finalized during a Russian governmental delegation's visit this February to China.... Yet it is clear that precisely a possible joint use of GLONASS in the interests of military departments of the two countries is meant." GLONASS is similar to the NAVSTAR system of the US, which serves Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers freely sold worldwide. GLONASS was created by the RF in 1993, and though initially it was considered to be of a purely military nature, later some peaceful commercial uses were found for it in order for the profits to cover the military costs. The RF President issued a decree calling GLONASS "a dual-purpose system." Yet it retains its military usefulness as well, making it possible for RF aircraft to fly over unknown territories and deliver high-precision air strikes, for RF missiles to hone in on the targets, for RF ships to maneuver in coastal waters, and for RF troop to orient themselves anywhere anytime. A "Terminator" system working in link with GLONASS is presently mounted on Topol-M ICBMs. "The Russian proposal to China to become a full-fledged 'co-owner' of GLONASS (and as a consequence to get precise, not commercially adapted, military information) is much more important for Beijing than an opportunity to buy a hundred or two hundred American-made civil GPS receivers."

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5. RF-Japan Peace Treaty

Nezavisimaia Gazeta's M.O. ("R.F. FOREIGN MINISTRY DENIES JAPANESE MASS MEDIA REPORTS," Moscow, 6, 01/21/00) reported that the RF Foreign Ministry on January 20 denied some Japanese mass media reports that "some time ago Moscow gave Tokyo a draft peace treaty between the two countries." According to RF Foreign Ministry, such reports "are totally at odds with the reality." No such drafts were ever given to Japan.

Segodnya's Yevgeny Antonov ("JAPAN DOES NOT EXPECT THE PEACE TREATY TO BE SIGNED SOON ," Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 6, 01/22/00) reported that the Japanese Foreign Ministry had doubts about a possibility of signing an RF-Japanese peace treaty in 2000. Yohei Kono, Japanese Foreign Minister, said during NHK TV debates, "a new president to be elected in March in Russia will have first of all to deal with domestic problems. Therefore he will not have time to deal with international issues, the issues of territorial delimitation." According to Segodnya's author, "the Japanese seem to have agreed with the fact that the terms negotiated with Russian leaders are not fulfilled.... The Japanese believe that a new person to lead Russia will need a long period of accommodation and therefore the treaty signing will be suspended for an indefinite time."

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6. RF National Security Concept

Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye's Yevgeny Moskvin ("THE NEW STRATEGY ALARMS THE WEST," Moscow, 01/21-27/00 #2(175)) reported about Western comments concerning the new National Security Concept of the RF approved by RF acting President Vladimir Putin on January 10. Western experts note first of all that the RF changed its tone in its dialogue with the West. The word "partnership" has been replaced by "cooperation." For the first time "the policy of the Western countries is called a potential threat to Russian security." There was nothing of that sort in the Concept of 1997 and in the Military Doctrine of 1993. Noticeably the Soviet system of identifying the enemy is in use again, as the Concept uses the term "some countries," obviously meaning the US and other NATO members. Furthermore, quite similar to fundamental Soviet documents the Concept speaks about the struggle going on in the world between two trends: one toward creation of a "multipolar" world and the other toward global hegemony of the US. Different from the recent past, the new Concept provides for the use of nuclear weapons both in a world war and a smaller-scale conflict, after all other means of fighting an aggression are depleted. That also concerns the allies of the RF, which are not mentioned by names, thus opening a most wide field for interpretations chiefly in term of a substantial lowering of the nuclear threshold. "The level and the scale of threats in the military sphere are increasing," the Concept says. At the same time, many experts in the CIS countries and East Europe consider the Concept as primarily a tool in the RF presidential election campaign.

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7. RF Naval Presence

Izvestia ("OUR SUBMARINES ARE NEITHER HEARD NOR SEEN," Moscow, 2, 01/18/00) reported Admiral Viktor Kravchenko, Chief-of-Staff, RF Navy, as saying that according to the newly adopted RF National Security Concept, restoration of the maritime positions of the RF is a priority. Therefore RF naval presence is to be maintained in all parts of the World Ocean. At the same time Admiral Kravchenko avoided a direct answer to the question whether the RF Navy had plans to use general-purpose submarines along the Eastern and Western coastlines of the US and in the Mediterranean. He said, "We adhere to the world tradition to leave submarine force activities without comments. I can say one thing - you will neither see nor, hopefully, hear our submarines in the areas mentioned."

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Timothy L. Savage:
Berkeley, California, United States

Gee Gee Wong:
Berkeley, California, United States

Kim Hee-sun:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hiroyasu Akutsu:
Tokyo, Japan

Peter Razvin:
Moscow, Russian Federation

Chunsi Wu:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Dingli Shen:
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