NAPSNet Daily Report
thursday, march 9, 2000

I. United States

II. Republic of Korea III. Announcements

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Week in Review

South Asian Nuclear Dialogue

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I. United States

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1. US-DPRK Talks

Agence France Presse ("NORTH KOREA HOPES FOR PROGRESS IN TALKS WITH UNITED STATES," New York, 3/9/00) reported that DPRK Vice Foreign Minister Kim Gye-gwan, the DPRK's chief representative to talks with the US, said Thursday that he hoped for progress on the second day of negotiations to prepare for a top DPRK official's visit to the US. US special envoy to the DPRK talks Charles Kartman met with Kim and his seven-member delegation, but will be joined later by the US coordinator for counter-terrorism, Michael Sheehan, who is to conduct parallel talks on terrorism. ROK government officials expect the DPRK's First Vice-Foreign Minister Kang Sok-ju to lead the upcoming US visit and that he would likely be received by US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. Hyung-kook Kim, Asian Studies director at American University, said, "if that happens, we can safely assume that North Korea is happy with US actions on lifting sanctions and deleting North Korea from the terrorism list. That they will not give up unless there is a very substantial offering -- in the multibillion dollar area -- from the United States and Japan, that's a tough issue. At this time their agenda is mainly to set the agenda for higher-level talks."

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2. DPRK Foreign Minister's PRC Visit

Agence France Presse ("NORTH KOREAN FOREIGN MINISTER TO VISIT CHINA," Beijing, 3/9/00) reported that PRC Foreign ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao said on Thursday that DPRK Foreign Minister Paek Nam-sun will pay an official visit to the PRC from March 18 to 22. Paek's visit comes at the invitation of PRC Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan, who visited the DPRK in October 1999.

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3. ROK View of Unification

Associated Press (George Boehmer, "S. KOREA LEADER STUDIES UNIFICATION," Berlin, 3/9/00) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-jung said Thursday in a speech at the Free University in Germany, that ROK-DPRK unification would be more difficult than the German case. Kim said that the elation many in the ROK initially felt at the reintegration of Germany has dimmed with the "shock" of how difficult and expensive the process has been. Kim said, "at the time of unification, the West German economy was much bigger than Korea's. Furthermore, it had never fought a war with East Germany, and of course, unification was preceded by many cooperative exchanges." Kim said that when those and other factors are considered, "it seems out of the question that we should hasten territorial unification. The most realistic and reasonable approach seems to be to work for the elimination of the ever-present threats of conflict first, and then to pursue reconciliation, cooperation, coexistence and coprosperity. Any attempt to reunify the divided land should come after that."

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4. Food Aid for DPRK

Agence France Presse ("FRENCH AID GROUP SLAMS UN 'POLITICAL OPERATION' IN NORTH KOREA," Paris, 3/9/00) reported that the French aid organization Action Against Hunger (ACF) announced Thursday that it had withdrawn from the DPRK. ACF president Roger Godino said that the termination was because "the massive UN aid effort, principally run by the World Food Programme and United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) with significant US funds, is essentially a political and diplomatic operation. The United Nations is providing food aid, but not humanitarian aid." Godino said that the ACF pulled the last of its nine expatriate staff out of the DPRK on March 7 because they were unable to gain direct access to the population. Godino said, "we have made the point that it was not possible to carry out truly humanitarian work in North Korea. All our humanitarian assistance has to be channeled via official structures, and it is just not reaching the most vulnerable sections of the population." ACF's DPRK delegate, Michel Anglade, said that the DPRK receives a million tons of food aid per year from UN agencies, but the famine persists because the aid is handed to the government which distributes it to those people it judges "useful," neglecting the rest of the population. Anglade called the process "humanitarian dumping, [which] strengthens the North Korean authorities but sabotages NGOs (non-governmental organizations) who try to put conditions on their aid." ACF noted that other NGOs had already pulled out of DPRK for similar reasons, citing the French agencies Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors without borders) and Medecins du Monde (Doctors of the world) in 1998, and the British agency Oxfam in December 1999. Only five NGOs are still in the country, running mainly agricultural aid programs: Concern Worldwide (Ireland), ADRA (Switzerland), German Agro Action (Germany), Children's Aid Direct (Britain) and CSVI (Italy).

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5. US-PRC Military Talks

The South China Morning Post (Greg Torode, "PLA TALKS SOUGHT FOR VISIT BY COHEN," Washington, 3/9/00) reported that US Defense Department officials said on March 8 that US military officials are seeking informal meetings with PLA counterparts during a visit to Hong Kong this weekend by US Defense Secretary William Cohen. One senior US Defense Department official said, "any meeting with the PLA garrison or any other Chinese official in Hong Kong would be informal and part of a wider effort to keep up engagement." Cohen will meet Hong Kong Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa, Chief Secretary for Administration Anson Chan Fang On-sang, and business leaders. Cohen is expected to cover a wide range of topics, from the US desire for continued naval and air force visits, to vigilance against illegal trade transshipments. One Hong Kong Government official said, "Hong Kong can face all sorts of problems on Capitol Hill, so having a steady flow of senior officials and cabinet figures such as Mr Cohen through the SAR [Special Administration Region] is very important to the way it is perceived in the US." [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense's Early Bird news service for March 9, 2000.]

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6. Alleged PRC Spying

The Washington Times (Bill Gertz, "CHINA BOOSTS SPY PRESENCE IN U.S., CIA, FBI REPORT ," 3/9/00) reported that a joint US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) unclassified report said that PRC spy services are stepping up military spying against the US and using Chinese students as intelligence agents to manipulate US policy. The report said, "Chinese attempts to obtain U.S. military and military- related technology ... have increased since the early 1990s." It added that PRC spying "focuses on the foreign policies and intentions of the United States as well as information on U.S. leaders and sensitive bi- or multilateral negotiations." The report said that the PRC stepped-up influence operations starting in 1995. It also said that the US remained the "main target" of spying by the intelligence arm of the People's Liberation Army (PLA), known as the Military Intelligence Department (MID). It continued to say that the PRC focused on gathering military-related technology after seeing the US in the 1991 Persian Gulf War and last year's Kosovo operations. The report said, "PRC scientists, through mutually beneficial scientific exchange programs, gather [science and technology] information through U.S. national laboratories." It said that cooperative exchange programs by the laboratories have created "new vulnerabilities" for US high-technology information. The report continued, "these vulnerabilities emphasize the significant difficulty the United States encounters in detecting PRC espionage activity." The main spy agencies for the PRC were identified as the Ministry of State Security, which conducts collection and counterespionage in the PRC and abroad, the MID, which gathers military and technical secrets, and the PLA's Liaison Department, charged with spying on Taiwan. [Ed. note: This article was one of the top stories in the US Department of Defense's Early Bird news service for March 9, 2000.]

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7. US Trade Policy toward PRC

Office of International Information Programs, US Department of State released a letter to the US Congress ("TO THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES: THE WHITE HOUSE," 3/8/00) which said that US President Bill Clinton authorized the termination of the application of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 to the PRC and extended permanent Normal Trade Relations treatment to products from the PRC. The legislation specifies that Clinton's determination becomes effective only when the PRC becomes a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), and only after a certification that the terms and conditions of the PRC's accession to the WTO are at least equivalent to those agreed to between the US and the PRC in their 11/15/99 agreement.

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8. US Arms Sales to Taiwan

Agence France-Presse ("US READY TO SELL ENHANCED WEAPONS SYSTEMS TO TAIPEI," Washington, 3/9/00) reported that the US Defense Department has notified Congress that it is prepared to sell Taiwan upgraded Hawk anti-aircraft missiles and items to improve air surveillance radar. The department said that any such sales would not affect the basic military balance in the region. Raytheon was authorized to sell Taiwan 162 Hawk intercept aerial guided missiles and related equipment unless Congress raised objections to the deal. The sale is valued at US$106 million (HK$1.22 billion). The Department said, "this proposed sale will support the recipient's continued effort to modernize and enhance its air-defense capabilities." It also authorized Northrop Grumman to sell Taiwan items needed to convert TPS-43F air surveillance radar to a TPS-75V configuration. The Pentagon estimated the cost at US$96 million and said "the proposed sale of radar will provide more responsive and timely information for air-defense operations. The conversion of the An/TPS-43 radar would modernize this radar, which is becoming unsupportable due to obsolescence." [Ed. note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense's Early Bird news service for March 9, 2000.]

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9. Japanese View of PRC

Reuters ("JAPAN THINKTANK RAPS CHINA OVER MISSILE DEFENSE," Tokyo, 3/9/00) reported that the National Institute for Defense Studies, a research arm of Japan's Defense Agency, has criticized the PRC for its opposition to a proposed US-Japan missile defense system. The institute said after its annual East Asian Strategic Review that the US-Japan project would not affect the region's strategic balance. The report, released on March 8, said, "TMD (Theatre Missile Defense) is purely a defensive weapon and will not destabilize (Japan's) strategic relations with its neighbors. The Chinese criticism shows nothing but fears that China's unilateral military supremacy over Japan by deploying ballistic missiles could be threatened." The report also said that the PRC had no right to criticize the defense system as it had yet to clear up allegations that it has been engaged in ballistic missile sales.

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10. US-Japan Arms Control Talks

Office of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State released a joint statement by US Arms Control and International Security John Holum and Japanese Foreign Ministry Director General for Arms Control and Scientific Affairs Norio Hattori ("JOINT PRESS STATEMENT HATTORI-HOLUM," 3/8/00) which said that the US and Japan have established a new bilateral commission called the "US-Japan Commission on Arms Control, Disarmament, Nonproliferation and Verification." The commission was formed to enhance international measures to prevent proliferation of nuclear arms and other weapons of mass destruction. The bilateral commission will meet every six months to review and implement joint goals, with the immediate priority being the strengthening of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) regime and the bringing about of the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The commission will also work to bring about a satisfactory conclusion to the United Nations Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference, scheduled to convene next month in New York. The commission has established a Technology Cooperation Working Group, comprised of Japanese and US experts and focused on exploring possible uses of technology to verify arms control and non-proliferation treaties and agreements. The statement said that the working group has already developed a concrete plan for proceeding with three projects to improve the effectiveness of the CTBT's International Monitoring System's seismic network.

II. Republic of Korea

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1. DPRK-Japan Talks

The Korea Herald (Kim Ji-ho, "ENVOY SAYS TIME IS RIGHT FOR N.K.-JAPAN TALKS," Seoul, 03/09/00) reported that new Japanese Ambassador to the ROK Terusuke Terada said on March 8 that although it is hard to predict how much progress will be made in the upcoming rapprochement talks between the DPRK and Japan, there are indications that they could be productive. Terada felt that the Japanese government's "costly" decision to resume food aid to the DPRK would help persuade the DPRK to adopt a more positive stance on key pending issues, including the alleged abduction of Japanese citizens by DPRK agents. Terada said, "our government expects the decision, made despite the strong opposition of the ruling coalition, will lead North Korea to reverse its stance on the kidnapping issue. There is strong opposition in Japan to resuming the talks without solving the abduction cases, not only from the families involved, but also from the political circle. But our government believes the issue will never be put to rest unless the two sides open government-level talks. And this is why we decided to provide food aid and resume talks despite the lingering discontent within our coalition government. The factor that distinguishes the upcoming talks from previous meetings is that they will proceed based on full preparation and cooperation between Japan, South Korea and the United States."

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2. Northern Limit Line

Joongang Ilbo (Lee Yong-jong, "NORTH KOREA DECLARES NULLIFICATION OF NLL," Seoul, 03/03/00) reported that the DPRK Navy Command declared the nullification of the Northern Limit Line (NLL) on the West Sea (Yellow Sea). Analysts said that the statement was a sign that tensions are likely to mount over the NLL because it is very unusual for DPRK military authorities to issue a statement. The ROK government is reportedly preparing countermeasures, including military ones, in case DPRK forces provoke a maritime skirmish before the April 13 general elections and during the crab-catching season (March-June). A spokesman of the DPRK Navy Command said on Pyongyang Radio, "the NLL is a phantom line that US forces have drawn as they pleased. It is an illegal line that ignores the armistice agreement or even elementary demands of the international maritime law. On the West Sea, there exists only the Maritime Demilitarized Zone, which is declared by us. Recently, South Korean puppets have given serious signals that they will stage a new shoot-out incident. If they turn a blind eye to our demands, US imperialists and South Korea must shoulder all resulting responsibilities."

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3. ROK Aid to DPRK

Joongang Ilbo (Cha Jing-yong, "NORTH KOREA RECEIVES FINAL SHIPMENT OF EGGS," Seoul, 03/06/00) reported that upon completion of the third shipment of 10 million eggs at Inchon Harbor on March 6, the Korean Sharing Movement and National Livestock Cooperative Federation's "Send 20 million eggs to North Korea" campaign will successfully draw to an end. The two organizations are planning a ceremony to unveil the "Reunification Wish Tower," a sculpture made out of 70 million eggs intended to represent the Korean continent's 70 million inhabitants. Plaques of gratitude will be given to Choi Gui-sun, Mayor of Inchon, Lim Chang-yul, Kyonggi provincial governor, and several other dignitaries. The two organizations have already sent two shipments of 5 million eggs to the DPRK.

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4. DPRK Currency

Joongang Ilbo ("NORTH KOREA CHANGES TO UNIFORM CURRENCY RATE," Seoul, 03/06/00) reported that the DPRK recently changed from a multiple currency rate system to a uniform currency rate system. The previous multi-rating system had an official currency rate. The Yonhap News reported that the DPRK is making contracts for currency trade with 105 banks in 50 countries. Yonhap said that the information was released on March 6 in a report by Moon Sung-min, a senior researcher at the Bank of Korea, entitled, "The Financial System in North Korea." Moon wrote in the report that the currency exchange rate is currently decided by Chosun Trade Bank (CTB) in the DPRK. The CTB announced a standard exchange rate, which was calculated by comparing the governmental prices of DPRK products with the international market prices.

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5. DPRK Economic Development

Joongang Ilbo ("MORE INVESTMENT IN S&T IN NORTH KOREA," Seoul, 03/05/00) reported that the Korean Central News Agency and Pyongyang Broadcasting said that DPRK leader Kim Jong-il drives most of the science and technology policy in the DPRK. Science and technology was suggested as one of the three agendas for the National Innovation System. The Korea Central Broadcasting aired news on March 2 that Kim ordered one research and development project, which was to change coke into hard coal. The report said that Kim will emphasize that being economical in research and development is not a priority. At the same time, Kim suggested that the development of practical technology could help enhance production output more than academic research can. The author wrote that, given that an objective evaluation and a substantial understanding about science and technology in the DPRK are nearly impossible, the news seems to provide a clue to the future of science and technology in the DPRK.

III. Announcements

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1. Nautilus Finance Officer Position

The Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development seeks an experienced professional to serve as permanent Finance Officer to handle a range of budget and financial operations. This position is not suitable for entry-level candidates. This position requires: adegree in finance, accounting, nonprofit administration, business administration, or a related field; a minimum of three years of successful work experience in nonprofit finance and/or accounting, including in financial analysis and budget development; or an equivalent combination of skills and experience; advanced knowledge of generally accepted accounting principles, especially in the not-for-profit realm; current technical knowledge of nonprofit and fund accounting; experience with accounting and financial reporting software systems; demonstrated ability to work proficiently in a Windows-based environment, including facility with Excel and Word; demonstrated organizational, analytical, and problem-solving skills, including adaptability; excellent oral and written communication skills; ability to work independently, set priorities, organize time effectively, manage numerous projects and tasks simultaneously, and meet tight deadlines, while maintaining accuracy and attention to detail; ability to handly confidential information with discretion; a high level of integrity.

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2. Nautilus Data Entry Position

The Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development seeks a careful, accurate typist to enter names, addresses, and related information into our database. This job requires exceptional attention to detail and ability to follow instructions carefully. We seek someone who can make a commitment to working with us periodically for at least the next several months, at our Berkeley office, on a flexible schedule that falls within our office hours (Monday-Friday 8-5). The hours are part-time and variable, with quite a bit of backlog to take care of currently, and several hours per month thereafter. For more information and how to apply, please visit our website at:

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3. Fellowship Opportunity

The Herbert Scoville Jr. Peace Fellowship Program invites college graduates to apply for full-time, six month Fellowships in Washington, DC. Outstanding individuals will be selected to work with one of the 23 participating nonprofit organizations addressing peace and security issues. Scoville Fellows conduct research and advocacy on a range of issues including nuclear and conventional arms control, the military budget, environmental security and peacekeeping. They may also attend Congressional hearings, conferences, coalition meetings, and have occasional meetings with leaders in the field of arms control. Candidates are required to have completed a baccalaureate degree by the time the Fellowship commences. The Scoville Fellowship is not intended for students or scholars interested in pursuing independent research in Washington, DC. The deadline for the Fall 2000 semester is March 15. Further information and application requirements are available online or by calling (202) 543-4100.

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Produced by the Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development in partnership with:
International Policy Studies Institute Seoul, Republic of Korea
The Center for Global Communications, Tokyo, Japan
Center for American Studies,
Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Asian Institute,
Monash University, Clayton, Australia

Timothy L. Savage:
Berkeley, California, United States

Gee Gee Wong:
Berkeley, California, United States

Kim Hee-sun:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hiroyasu Akutsu:
Tokyo, Japan

Peter Razvin:
Moscow, Russian Federation

Chunsi Wu:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Dingli Shen:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Leanne Paton:
Clayton, Australia

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