NAPSNet Daily Report
tuesday, october 24, 2000

I. United States

II. Republic of Korea III. People's Republic of China

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I. United States

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1. DPRK Missile Program

Reuters (Jonathan Wright, "U.S. SAYS N.KOREA PLEDGES NO MORE MISSILE LAUNCHES," Pyongyang, 10/24/00), and the Associated Press (Christopher Torchia, "KIM INDICATES HE WOULD HALT MISSILES," Pyongyang, 10/24/00), reported that a senior US official said that DPRK leader Kim Jong-il gave US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright a personal pledge on Tuesday not to launch another long-range missile. Albright said that when an image of a Taepodong I missile was flashed during a performance, Kim "immediately turned to me and quipped that this was the first satellite launch and it would be the last." Albright stated, "I take what he said on these issues as serious in terms of his desire, and ours, to move forward." She said that the fact that missile talks were resuming soon was "an important step forward. We made important progress but much work remains to be done." She also talked with Kim about his idea that the DPRK might abandon its missile program in exchange for foreign assistance in launching DPRK satellites. In the two days of her visit to Pyongyang, Albright had six hours of formal talks with Kim. Before the talks restarted Tuesday, Kim told Albright, "I don't think the three hours of discussion we had (on Monday) were enough to break the silence of 50 years." Albright announced that talks on DPRK missiles would reconvene at the expert level next week to follow up the discussions. A US official said that US Assistant Secretary of State Robert Einhorn will lead the US delegation. Lower-level technical talks on missiles were planned for next week. Albright announced no other practical step and will leave it to US President Bill Clinton to decide whether the results of her visit justify a presidential summit in Pyongyang before he leaves office in January.

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2. Albright's Visit to DPRK

Reuters (Jonathan Wright, "ALBRIGHT SAYS TALKS WITH KIM JONG-IL POSITIVE," Pyongyang, 10/24/00) reported that DPRK Vice Foreign Minister Kim Gye-gwan said that DPRK-US relations are improving. Kim stated, "The DPRK-US relationship that has been frozen so deep over the past several decades is now reaching the historic moment of thawing. We are convinced that the current visit will contribute to securing further important breakthroughs in the improved relationship." The DPRK's official Rodong Sinmun newspaper had two large front-page photographs of US Secretary of State Albright's visit. One showed Albright sitting across a table from DPRK leader Kim Jong-il, the other was of Kim and the 16-member US delegation in front of a mural.

The US Department Of State, Office of the Spokesman ("ALBRIGHT REMARKS OCT. 24 AT LUNCHEON IN PYONGYANG," Pyongyang, 10/24/00) carried the transcript of a toast by US Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright at a lunch hosted by Vice Marshal Jo Myong-rok. Albright stated, "We have had many serious issues to discuss, and I'm heartened that we have been able to continue our talks in such a positive and constructive way." She added, "The United States loves peace, and we want to see Cold War divisions end. We want countries in the region to feel secure from the threat of conflict or war. We want every nation to participate in the international system and to observe global norms, and we want to harness new technology to help people everywhere live better and richer lives." Albright stated, "We must move with a steady stride away from the bitterness of the past and persist in the search for common ground.... We have far to go, but I am convinced that we are moving in the right direction."

The Wall Street Journal (Michael Schuman, "NORTH KOREA PROVES AN AMBIVALENT HOST," Pyongyang, 10/24/00) and the New York Times (Jane Perlez, "ALBRIGHT RECEIVES A SPECTACULAR WELCOME TO NORTH KOREA," Pyongyang, 10/23/00), and Reuters (Jonathan Wright, "ALBRIGHT WATCHES 'AMAZING' NORTH KOREAN PAGEANT," Pyongyang, 10/23/00) reported that DPRK leader Kim Jong-il accompanied US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright to performance at May Day Stadium. The performance included fireworks, patriotic music, acrobats and dancing. It also featured mock military drills and an animated rocket. One side of the arena blinked with changing images created by about 30,000 people seated side by side holding color-coded cards in front of them and flicking them in highly synchronized movements. DPRK officials said that the display was performed two weeks ago in a tribute to the Workers Party of Korea and repeated for the US delegation. Foreign Ministry officials said that the performance took 10 months of rehearsing. Asked what she thought of the show, Albright said "amazing."

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3. Clinton's Visit to DPRK

Dow Jones Newswires ("US CLINTON LIKELY TO VISIT N. KOREA ON NOV. 11 KYODO," Tokyo, 10/24/00) reported that Japan's Kyodo News Agency quoted a senior official of Japan's ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) as saying on Tuesday that US President Bill Clinton is likely to visit the DPRK on November 11. The LDP official said that he heard this from a person involved with the examination of distribution of international relief aid in the DPRK, who was told this by a senior DPRK official. The LDP official added that if Clinton meets DPRK leader Kim Jong-il, he will propose granting US$300 million annually in economic assistance in exchange for a DPRK freeze of its missile development program. The official said that Clinton is likely to go to the DPRK via Vietnam. He added that Clinton's visit depends on developments related to US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright's visit to the DPRK.

Reuters ("U.S. SAYS NO DECISION ON CLINTON TRIP TO N.KOREA," Washington, 10/24/00) reported that White House spokesman Jake Siewert said Tuesday that US President Bill Clinton would wait for a briefing from Secretary of State Madeleine Albright about her trip to the DPRK before deciding whether to travel there himself. Siewert stated, "We look forward to getting a fuller briefing about her discussions with the North Koreans and our allies in the region, Japan and South Korea, before making a decision."

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4. Food Aid for DPRK

The Asian Wall Street Journal (Michael Schuman, "ALBRIGHT LAUDS STEPS TAKEN BY WASHINGTON AND PYONGYANG," Pyongyang, 10/24/00) reported that Douglas Broderick, DPRK country director for the World Food Program, said that US food aid played an important part in the moves toward rapprochement between the US and the DPRK. Broderick stated, "The food aid has opened the door. It has established trust." Broderick said that this year's harvest will likely be worse than last year's, and that sometimes even basic household goods are hard to come by. He said that in one industrial town in the winter, he saw only three or four smokestacks out of 50 puffing smoke.

The US Department Of State, Office Of The Spokesman (REMARKS BY SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE K. ALBRIGHT TO THE RANGNANG KINDERGARTEN AND WORLD FOOD PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION SITE," Pyongyang, 10/23/00) carried a transcript of US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright's remarks at a World Food Program (WFP) distribution site. Albright stressed the importance of the work that the WFP is doing in the DPRK. She stated, "international donors should be assured that the supplies they send are used for the purposes intended." She added, "Despite the difficult conditions, [WFP has] launched innovative programs aimed at enhancing local food production, promoting agricultural rehabilitation, and helping women gain equal access to food supplies. I am so pleased to be able to see some of this in action. I also hope the cooperation we have begun to see between the DPRK and the international community will continue to expand to the benefit of all the people of this country."

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5. US Impressions of DPRK

The Washington Post (Doug Struck, "MUCH IS 'NOT ALLOWED' IN NORTH KOREAN CAPITAL," Pyongyang, 10/24/00, 1), and the Los Angeles Times (Valerie Reitman, "IN THE NORTH, NO NIGHTS ON THE TOWN," Pyongyang, 10/24/00) reported that the 46 US journalists allowed into Pyongyang to cover US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright's visit were not allowed to leave the hotel except to witness officially approved ceremonies. An unnamed foreign resident of Pyongyang stated, "I don't think I've ever had a conversation about politics with a North Korean here." The report said that there were few signs of activity in Pyongyang, except for children coming out of school in the late afternoon. It added that the DPRK has few cars, and thousands of pedestrians walk along the streets. One of the DPRK guides was surprised to learn that ROK President Kim Dae-jung had won the Nobel Peace Prize. He stated, "Kim Jong Il doesn't need any rewards. He only wants our people to become rich and peaceful, and he doesn't need any awards."

The New York Times (Jane Perlez, "ALBRIGHT RECEIVES A SPECTACULAR WELCOME TO NORTH KOREA," Pyongyang, 10/23/00) reported that US reporters in Pyongyang were allowed to go outside the Koryo Hotel and walk a few blocks, and that a noodle bar down a side street near the hotel seemed open to reporters. Officials said that about 2,000 privately owned cars have shown up on the streets in the last year, and that most of them are probably bought with remittances from relatives in Japan. While most restaurants were closed, a kiosk selling sweet potatoes appeared to be doing a lot of business.

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6. US-ROK-Japan Policy Coordination

Reuters (Jason Neely, "ALBRIGHT TO BRIEF JAPAN, S.KOREA ON NORTH TRIP," Seoul, 10/24/00) reported that the ROK Foreign Ministry said that US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright will meet ROK Foreign Minister Lee Joung-binn and Japanese Foreign Minister Yohei Kono in Seoul on Wednesday to discuss her trip to the DPRK. The ministry said in a statement, "In the three-way talks, they will evaluate current relations with North Korea and coordinate their North Korea policy." A joint news conference is scheduled at 0535 GMT on Wednesday. Professor Lee Jung-min of the Yonsei University Graduate School of International Studies stated, "They will not make public everything they have heard." He added that a US-DPRK exchange of liaison offices could be one issue addressed. Albright will also meet ROK President Kim Dae-jung.

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7. ROK-Russian Arms Trade

The Associated Press ("SOUTH KOREA CANCELS PLAN TO ACCEPT RUSSIAN SUBMARINES AS DEBT PAYMENT Seoul, 10/23/00) reported that the ROK Defense Ministry has canceled a plan to accept three Russian submarines as partial payment for Russia's US$1.75 billion debt. Russia had offered three Kilo-class submarines worth a total US$1.1 billion, but after inspecting the submarines in June, the ROK navy concluded that they failed to meet its requirements for battery quality, navigational and communications capability, and logistics support. Instead, the ROK will ask Russia to repay the debt with other military equipment.

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8. PRC Participation in Korean War

The Associated Press (Christopher Bodeen, "CHINA COMMEMORATES KOREAN WAR," Beijing, 10/24/00) reported that the PRC will officially mark the anniversary of its entry into the Korean War on Wednesday. PRC Defense Minister Chi Haotian will attend anniversary ceremonies in the DPRK. On Monday, Chi laid a wreath to the PRC's war dead in the DPRK city of Kaesong. PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao said that commemorations aim to enhance the "patriotic education of the people" and to "express the will and determination in safeguarding regional and world peace." Arthur Waldron, professor of International Relations at the University of Pennsylvania, said that the PRC "sees Korea as a victory over the United States and one that Mao personally oversaw. That is not something you tamper with." James Lilley, former US ambassador to the PRC who is now an analyst with the American Enterprise Institute, stated, "It was Korea where China branded the United States a hegemon imperialist. And that has remained a constant. If you begin to reverse the verdict, that is undermined."

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9. PRC-US Military Exchanges

The Associated Press (Robert Burns, "CHINESE GENERAL TO VISIT U.S.," Washington, 10/23/00) reported that the US Defense Department announced on Monday that General Yu Yongbo, director of the PRC army's General Political Department, will begin an 11-day day visit to the US with a stop at the US Military Academy at West Point on Wednesday. Yu also will visit Fort Jackson, Bolling Air Force Base in Washington, Patrick Air Force Base, the Pentagon and US Pacific Command headquarters in Hawaii. During his stop at the Pentagon on October 31, Yu is scheduled to meet with US Defense Secretary William Cohen. Yu will be the highest-ranking official of the People's Liberation Army to visit the US this year. The Department said that Yu asked to visit ordinary US military bases to see how troops are provided with health, welfare, legal, entertainment and religious services. The PRC's official Xinhua News Agency stated, "The activities are believed to be of help to enhancing mutual understanding and improving bilateral relations, especially military ties between the two countries."

The Washington Times (Bill Gertz, "PENTAGON FACTION FEARS GENERAL'S VISIT MORE LIKE ESPIONAGE," 10/24/00, 7) reported that some US defense officials said that the visit by PRC General Yu Yongbo is a covert intelligence mission to learn possible weaknesses in US military morale. One unnamed defense official stated, "They believe one of America's biggest weak points is morale that can be crushed in a surprise, massive attack. That's what their goal is for the visit. It's an intelligence collection mission." Another defense official stated, "The DoD [Department of Defense] explanation for this is that there is a counterpart for each Chinese general who visits. And in their effort to find a counterpart to General Yu, one they have chosen is the chaplain corps of the Army, Navy and Air Force." US Representative Dan Burton, Republican-Indiana and chairman of the Government Reform Committee, sent a letter to US Defense Secretary William S. Cohen on Thursday, asking him to explain US-PRC military exchanges and whether they are legal.

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10. PRC Defense White Paper

The International Herald Tribune carried an opinion article David Shambaugh of George Washington University ("HERE IS A WELCOME SHIFT BY CHINA TOWARD MILITARY TRANSPARENCY," Shanghai, 10/24/00) which said that publication of the PRC's third Defense White Paper is a significant step toward greater openness of PRC armed forces. The article stated, "The recent defense paper still lacks transparency in some key areas, notably the military's weapons list, force deployments and defense purchases. But otherwise it comes close to international standards, on a par with similar publications by Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Australia." It added, "for the first time it breaks down the composition of spending into three main categories and several subcategories of each. These show that the armed forces spend about 30 percent on personnel and associated costs, slightly more on operations and maintenance, and slightly less on developing or buying weapons and equipment." The article noted, "All told, China's total military spending is probably about 15 percent higher than the official figure. But this is still considerably less than comparable spending by Japan or Western nations." It argued, "The overall picture shows a military that is undergoing sweeping change. Much more attention is being paid to streamlining and efficiency, rather than buying or developing new weapons. Overall, the armed forces' equipment appears to remain 15 years or more behind U.S. levels." It concluded that while the assessments in the paper "may portend future trouble with the United States, the new defense paper is a positive step forward and shows China's growing adherence to international norms. The document should mute critics of Chinese military secrecy."

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11. Cross-Straits Economic Relations

The Los Angeles Times (Tyler Marshall, "CHINA-TAIWAN TRADE: NO DIRE STRAITS," Taipei, 10/24/00) reported that despite the decline in cross-Straits political relations, two-way trade across the Taiwan Straits increased by 20 percent during the first five months of the year. Tsai Ing-wen, chairwoman of Taiwan's Mainland Affairs Council, stated, "In the medium or longer term, we will need a [political framework], but not for the short term." Timothy Conlin, chief economist at ING Baring, said, "I see nothing to suggest this is going to change." Taiwan has also pledged to legalize trade and commercial ties between its two outermost islands, Matsu and Quemoy, and the PRC by the end of this year. Tsai stated, "There's the likelihood that this area will [eventually] become a free-trade area ... an industrial area for Taiwanese businesses who already have investments on the mainland." The PRC's China Eastern Airlines, recently received official approval to sell a 25 percent stake in its cargo operations to Taiwan's China Airlines.

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12. Japanese Seat in UNSC

The International Fund for Animal Welfare issued a press release ("UN DAY HIGHLIGHTED BY CONGRESSIONAL ACTION TO BLOCK JAPAN'S BID FOR UN SECURITY COUNCIL SEAT," 10/24/00) which said that US Congressman Bill Delahunt (Democrat-Massachusetts) has introduced a congressional resolution seeking to block Japan from securing a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. The resolution states that "the President should oppose a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for the Government of Japan until Japan's whaling activities comply with the requirements of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) and Japan ends the commercialization of whale meat."

II. Republic of Korea

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1. DPRK-US Talks

The Korea Herald (Shin Yong-bae, "N.K. LIKELY TO MAKE CONCESSIONS IN TALKS WITH ALBRIGHT," Seoul, 10/24/00) reported that ROK analysts said Monday that the DPRK will likely make concessions over major pending issues during its ongoing high-level talks with the US to pave the way for the visit by US President Bill Clinton to Pyongyang. "The United States will not give a clear-cut pledge on Clinton's visit unless the North makes dramatic concessions because the Washington government is facing rising concerns about its fast engagement with Pyongyang," said Professor Kim Sung-han of the Institute of Foreign Affairs and National Security (IFANS). ROK observers said that the DPRK was expected to announce the extradition of four former Japanese Red Army members involved in the 1970 hijacking of a Japanese airliner, a key US demand for dropping the DPRK from the terrorism list. Chances are also growing that the DPRK will accept a US call for the opening of "diplomatic representation" at both capitals as a preliminary step toward establishing ambassadorial-level relations. US officials accompanying US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright were quoted as saying that they believed "serious progress" in addressing US concerns about the DPRK, including its missile program, was imminent. Some ROK experts however presented different views, saying that the two countries were expected to make little progress on the DPRK's halt to its missile and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs.

Chosun Ilbo ("ALBRIGHT MEETS WITH KIM JONG IL AHEAD OF SCHEDULE," Seoul, 10/23/00) reported that US Secretary of State Madeline Albright on Monday became the first high-ranking US official to visit Pyongyang in half a century. After arriving in the DPRK on Monday morning, Secretary Albright held earlier-than-expected talks with DPRK leader Kim Jong-il, discussing issues of mutual concern. During the talks, Kim gave a warm welcome to Secretary Albright by saying, "We sincerely welcome your visit to North Korea." Secretary Albright, in response, said, "I am very pleased to visit such a lovely nation." Kim also expressed his thanks for the warm hospitality shown to the DPRK's second man Cho Myung-rok during his stay in the US, to which the Secretary replied, "Everything went smoothly without major controversy." The Albright-Kim talks were initially slated for Tuesday; however, in a surprise move the DPRK leader visited the official guest house, Paekwhawon, where the Secretary is staying, and the meeting was held a day earlier than scheduled. Reportedly, during the talks Kim and Albright discussed a wide range of issues including the development of missiles and nuclear weapons, the DPRK's removal from the US State Department's list of terrorism-sponsoring nations, the exchange of liaison offices, and details for President Clinton's visit to Pyongyang.

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2. ROK View on DPRK-US Relations

The Korea Herald (Chon Shi-yong, "N.K.-U.S. MOVES SAID TO HELP S-N RELATIONS," Seoul, 10/24/00) and The Korea Times ("CHONG WA DAE POSITIVE ON US-N. KOREA TIES," Seoul, 10/23/00) reported that ROK officials said on Monday that the DPRK's moves to improve ties with the US will not affect the ongoing developments in relations between the two Koreas. "Relations between South and North Korea have been steadily developing in accordance with the agreement reached in the inter-Korean summit, and progress in ties between North Korea and the United States will be conducive to inter-Korean relations," Chong Wa Dae spokesman Park Joon-young said.

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3. DPRK-EU Relations

The Korea Herald (Kim Ji-ho, "N. KOREA APPLAUDS EU'S RAPPROCHEMENT PROPOSAL," Seoul, 10/24/00) reported that the DPRK has highly commended the unprecedented diplomatic overtures by European nations to improve relations with Pyongyang, saying that the moves "conform with the international trend." "We welcome the decision of those countries," a spokesman for the DPRK's Foreign Ministry was quoted as saying in a statement by the official Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) on Sunday. The spokesman said that the Western governments' proposals reflected the "situation today where radical changes are taking place after the end of the Cold War." He added that setting up friendly ties with foreign countries had always been the DPRK's goal, stressing that the relationship should be made under the principle of mutual respect for sovereignty and equality. The statement, however, failed to comment on the Asia-Europe Meeting itself, nor did the DPRK official media make any report of President Kim Dae-jung's winning this year's Nobel Peace Prize.

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4. DPRK-PRC Relations

Chosun Ilbo (Jee Hae-bom, "CHINA'S DEFENCE MINISTER VISITS NORTH KOREA," Beijing, 10/23/00) reported that Chi Haotian, the Central Military Committee's Vice Chairman and PRC Defence Minister, is currently visiting the DPRK leading a PRC military delegation it was reported Monday. He met with DPRK Defence Minister Kim Il Chol and reiterated their opposition against US's planned Theater Missile Defense system and vowed to advance cooperation and collaboration in military sector. Minister Chi, who is on a five day visit to the DPRK to celebrate the 50th anniversary of PRC's entry into the Korean War said "Cooperation and collaboration between the two countries have been elevated to a new level and relationship between the two militaries plays an important role in the relations of the two countries." Chi also reaffirmed his previous stance on the Korean peninsula's peace and stability, improving DPRK-ROK's relations through dialogue and independent, peaceful reunification without outside interference. Exactly what was said in the meeting was not revealed but PRC sources predicted that the two sides must have coordinated their opinion before the historic visit by the US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and on US Forces stationed in the ROK.

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5. DPRK Criticism of ROK Ministers

Chosun Ilbo ("NK MEDIA CRITICIZES MINISTERS," Seoul, 10/23/00) reported that the DPRK unleashed a series of attacks against the ROK on Monday, with its Central News Agency launching a highly critical attack on ROK Defense Minister Cho Sung-tae. "South Korea's Minister of Defense Cho, Sung-tae's recent remarks during a parliamentary audit and inspection, that there lies a military threat on the Korean peninsula because Pyongyang has the military capability to fight a war against the South at any time, is a clear evidence that the South is still targeting the North as its' primary enemy," read the report. The agency added that such remarks are an intentional act to push the recent thaw in inter-Korean relations back to square one. While urging Minister Cho to avoid making any remarks that can lead to reversing the course of positive developments on the Korean peninsula, the agency also reported that the ROK authorities are still provoking the DPRK by carrying out joint military exercises with foreign forces.

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6. Korean War Massacres

The Korea Herald (Lee Joon-seung, "1,500 CIVILIANS KILLED BY GIS DURING KOREAN WAR," 10/24/00) reported that an ROK Representative Kim Won-wung of the opposition Grand National Party (GNP) on Monday claimed that more than 1,500 civilians were attacked and killed by US troops during the Korean War. Kim made the allegation in a report submitted to the National Assembly's Unification, Foreign Affairs and Trade Committee, which inspected the Korean Embassy in Washington, as part of the parliamentary audit. He said that his findings were based on a report made by the ROK Ministry of Defense on instances of civilian casualties. Kim's aide stated, "We have discovered that there were at least 61 cited cases, including the massacre at Nogun-ri, where American personnel attacked Korean civilians." He added that in at least 20 cases, the government had witnesses and other details about where and under what circumstances these incidents took place. Out of those 20 cases, 14 involved attacks by aircraft, while five involved US troops opening fire with rifles and other short-range weapons.

III. People's Republic of China

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1. Albright's Visit to DPRK

People's Daily (Zhang Xinghua, "KIM JONG-IL MEETS WITH ALBRIGHT," Pyongyang, 10/24/00, P6) reported that DPRK leader Kim Jong-il and US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright exchanged views on issues of common concern at the Paekhwawon Guest House in Pyongyang on October 23, aiming at laying the groundwork for a visit by US President Bill Clinton to the DPRK. Kim noted that Albright was the first US Secretary of State to ever visit DPRK. "This is a new one from a historical point of view," he said. "I am really happy." Albright echoed her happiness to visit DPRK. The two spoke for three hours, with a 15-minute break, and during the meeting Albright gave Kim a letter from Clinton anticipating further development in bilateral relations. "The visit is historic," said State Department spokesman Richard Boucher. He added, however, that there are "a lot of things that have to be discussed; a lot of issues that have to be dealt with.... Being able to deal successfully with these issues is the key to having a successful visit by the President." Despite the overtures inherent in Albright's visit and the efforts to set up one by Clinton, US officials warned in advance that serious differences remained between the two nations.

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2. ROK Response to Albright's Visit

Xinhua News Agency (Gao Haorong, "KIM DAE-JUNG WELCOMES ALBRIGHT'S DPRK VISIT," Seoul, 10/23/00) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-jung expressed his warmly welcome to US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright's visit to DPRK. He said that the visit would help to ease the tension on the Peninsula and to improve DPRK-ROK relations. Kim noted that the improvement of US-DPRK relations is in the interest of ROK and also the peace of the Peninsula.

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3. Asia-Europe Meeting

China Daily (Gao Anming, "PENINSULA PEACE TOPS ASEM AGENDA," Seoul, 10/21/00, P8) reported that senior Asian and European leaders on Friday adopted a declaration rendering to support the reconciliation process on the Korean Peninsula. In the "Seoul Declaration for Peace on the Korean Peninsula" passed at the Third Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM III), the leaders of 10 Asian countries and 15 European Union (EU) member states applauded the inter-Korean summit last June, and congratulated ROK President Kim Dae-jung and DPRK leader Kim Jong-il for their courage and vision in taking such a historic move. They encouraged both sides to continue building on the success of the summit, and promised to contribute to measures aimed at building confidence and enhancing peace and security on the peninsula. They also underlined the importance of strengthening efforts to improve relations between ASEM, its individual partners and the DPRK through dialogue, people-to-people exchanges and economic links, as well as through DPRK participation in multilateral dialogues.

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4. DPRK-Europe Relations

People's Daily (Shi Zongxing, "UK WILL ESTABLISH FOREIGN RELATIONS WITH DPRK," London, 10/20/00, P6) and Xinhua News Agency ("GERMANY WILL ESTABLISH FOREIGN RELATIONS WITH DPRK," Berlin, 10/19/00) reported that according to a report on Channel IV of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), British Foreign Minister Robin Cook said that Britain has received the message from the DPRK of its wish to establish foreign relations with Great Britain, and said that Britain will react positively toward this proposal. No specific date for establishment of relations was declared. A German government spokesperson also said that Germany is going to establish official foreign relations with the DPRK.

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5. PRC-DPRK Relations

Xinhua News Agency ("CHI HAOTIAN VISITS DPRK," Beijing, 10/22/00) and China Daily ("ARMY RELATIONS A VITAL PART OF BILATERAL TIES," Pyongyang, 10/24/00, P1) reported that on the eve of memorizing the 50th anniversary of Chinese People's Volunteers' entering the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea, a PRC senior officers' delegation led by Defense Minister Chi Haotian left for the DPRK on October 22, under the invitation of the DPRK Ministry of the People's Armed Forces. In his talks with the People's Armed Forces Minister of the DPRK, Kim Il-chol, Chi said that a deep friendship has been forged between the PRC and Korean people and between the armies of the two countries during their joint long-term struggle against foreign aggressions. He noted that the friendly operational relationship of cooperation between the PRC and DPRK has entered a new stage of development under Jiang Zemin and Kim Jong-il. Terming the relationship between the two armies as "a vital part" of bilateral relations, Chi said that the two armies have maintained close contact at all levels. Chi stressed that the two countries should continuously push forward the good relationship between the two countries and two armies. The PRC wants to see an independent and peaceful reunification of the two sides of the Korean Peninsula without foreign interference, said Chi. He added that the issues on the peninsula should be resolved through dialogue and consultations between the DPRK and the ROK. Kim Il-chol said that the DPRK is glad to receive the high-level PRC military delegation led by Chi. The visit shows that the PRC values its relationship with the DPRK, Kim said.

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6. PRC View of DPRK-ROK Relations

China Daily (Gao Anming, "CHINA BACKS PEACEFUL UNIFICATION," Seoul, 10/19/00, P1) reported that during a meeting with ROK President Kim Dae-jung on October 18, PRC Premier Zhu Rongji said that he welcomes the outcome of last June's summit between Kim Dae-jung and DPRK leader Kim Jong-il. "China unswervingly supports the two sides of the Peninsula to improve ties, and believes it is inevitable that peaceful reunification will eventually be achieved independently," Zhu said. He noted that the PRC welcomes the Korean Peninsula peace process, which is taking place in four-party talks among the PRC, the ROK, the DPRK, and the US. "A peaceful, unified and prosperous peninsula is not only in China's interests, but also benefits the whole region and the world at large," Zhu said.

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7. PRC View of PRC-ROK Relations

People's Daily (Liu Zhengxue, Wang Linchang, "ZHU RONGJI MEETS WITH ROK SPEAKER," Seoul, 10/20/00, P6) and China Daily (Gao Anming, "CHINA BACKS PEACEFUL UNIFICATION," Seoul, 10/19/00, P1) reported that during his first official visit to ROK, PRC Premier Zhu Rongji said that the joint decision by PRC President Jiang Zemin and ROK President Kim Dae-jung in 1998 to set up a Sino-Korean partnership for the 21st century was a milestone in bilateral ties. During talks between Zhu and Kim, the two sides agreed they should "maintain high-level contacts, expand exchanges and links in all fields and reinforce coordination in international and regional affairs" so as to build their partnership up to a new level of comprehensive cooperation at the turn of the century, according to a PRC Foreign Ministry spokesperson. The two sides were reported to have agreed to set up a PRC-ROK investment mechanism, a 21st century PRC-ROK economic cooperation institute, and a Chinese cultural center in Seoul.

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8. PRC-Russian Relations

Xinhua News Agency ("FRIENDSHIP COMMITTEE FLOURISHES," Beijing, 10/20/00), People's Liberation Army Daily ("PUTIN SENDS CONGRATULATORY MESSAGE," Beijing, 10/21/00, P4) and People's Liberation Army Daily ("JIANG ZEMIN SENDS CONGRATULATORY MESSAGE," Beijing, 10/21/00, P1) reported that PRC Vice- President Hu Jintao met with Volsky Ivanovich, Russian co-Chairman of the Sino-Russian Committee for Friendship, Peace and Development, and his delegation in Beijing. Extending congratulations on the convening of the third Plenary Session of the Sino-Russian Committee for Friendship, Peace and Development, Hu said that the PRC and Russia, both permanent members of the UN Security Council and influential countries in the world, are major forces to safeguard world peace and stability and push forward multipolarity. He said that top leaders of the two countries place great importance on the work of the Sino-Russian Committee. PRC President Jiang Zemin and Russian President Vladimir Putin sent congratulatory messages to the Committee, setting new goals for the Committee.

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9. Japanese-Russian Relations

People's Daily (Zhang Huanli, "JAPAN AND RUSSIA HOLD DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTERIAL NEGOTIATION," Tokyo, 10/24/00, P6) reported that on October 23, the Japanese and Russian governments held deputy foreign ministerial negotiations on issues like inclusion of peace treaty. Both sides reaffirmed their ever-held attitudes of "solving the four northern islands disputes and concluding a peace treaty." In the negotiation, they reached consensus on the upcoming summit talks between the two leaders in Brunei in mid November. Besides, Japanese Foreign Minister Yokei Kono is scheduled to visit Russia from November 1-4, and will hold talks with the Russian Foreign Minister. Concerning the Japanese-Russian Joint Declaration, Russian President Putin affirmed its validity for the first time on November 9 when he visited Japan. However, Russian government officials said that the Declaration did not say that Russia would return the sovereignty of Habomai Island and Shikotan Island completely. In the negotiation, both sides only reaffirmed the validity of the Declaration, but had no in-depth discussion on the explanations of the Declaration.

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Produced by the Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development in partnership with:
International Policy Studies Institute Seoul, Republic of Korea
The Center for Global Communications, Tokyo, Japan
Center for American Studies,
Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
Monash Asia Institute,
Monash University, Clayton, Australia

Timothy L. Savage:
Berkeley, California, United States

Gee Gee Wong:
Berkeley, California, United States

Robert Brown:
Berkeley, California, United States

Kim Hee-sun:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hiroyasu Akutsu:
Tokyo, Japan

Peter Razvin:
Moscow, Russian Federation

Yunxia Cao:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Dingli Shen:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

John McKay:
Clayton, Australia

Leanne Payton:
Clayton, Australia

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