Policy Forum Online:
I. United States
1. DPRK Participation in Security Conference
Agence France-Presse (Tim Witcher, "NORTH KOREA STAYS AWAY FROM SECURITY CONFERENCE," Seoul, 03/20/01) reported that unnamed diplomats said that the DPRK rejected an invitation to a conference in Seoul organized by ROK authorities and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Representatives of the conference said that the OSCE wanted to share its experience in helping to peacefully end tensions in Europe after the fall of communism in the early 1990s. An anonymous western ambassador in Seoul stated, "The North did not even give a proper reply. This is another good opportunity lost. But it is clear the North is very nervous about such contacts even if it wants better relations." Jan Kubis, secretary general of the OSCE, while refusing to comment on DPRK participation, said that Europe's experience could be applied on the Korean peninsula to boost confidence and security-building measures between the DPRK and the ROK. He said that the two sides should first build confidence and that neighboring countries such as the PRC and Japan should discuss how regional confidence can be strengthened, while helping the two Koreas to improve relations. Kubis noted that OSCE nations started with simple measures such as personnel exchanges, adding that even an exchange of military bands would be worth studying. Speaking at the start of the conference Tuesday, ROK Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister Lee Joung-Binn stated, "The newly-started reconciliation between South and North Korea should be carefully managed, so that it will lead to the replacement of the Cold War division with a regime of lasting peace on the Korean peninsula. As the OSCE's experience tells us, our task can begin with small steps that lead to big gains for peace and stability--confidence and security building measures." He added, "Following in the footsteps of the OSCE, with political will and vision, the countries of Northeast Asia should be able to take the small but significant step toward the start of such a [regional security] dialogue."
2. US Policy toward DPRK
The Christian Science Monitor carried an opinion article by J. Peter Scoblic, editor of Arms Control Today ("BUSH MISSES THE POINT ON NORTH KOREA," Washington, 03/20/01) which said that US President George W. Bush's expressed concern that the DPRK would not comply with any agreement on missiles is based on a misunderstanding of the importance of verification. Scoblic stated, "An agreement ending North Korea's missile development and exports would be a boon for US security, and the inability to fully guarantee North Korea's compliance does not make a deal imprudent or dangerous." He noted that the DPRK has adhered to the 1994 Agreed Framework and kept its 1999 pledge not to flight-test missiles while involved in negotiations with the US. He argued, "Strong verification is an essential component of any arms-control treaty, but the fact that there may be some uncertainty about complete compliance needs to be balanced against the benefits of an agreement - even if it is not perfectly implemented." Scoblic stated, "despite perennial fears of what would happen if others cheated - indeed, despite the fact that other states have cheated - no arms-control agreement has ever resulted in a loss of US security. There are two reasons for this. First, the type of cheating that can slip through a verification net is usually not the type that confers a significant advantage to the cheater. Second, in certain types of agreements, cheating ... may be unwanted, but its cost is no greater than that of not having signed the agreement. If an agreement does not require us to give up any capability or potential advantage, then we are no more vulnerable with it than without it." He added, "The agreement's verification provisions - even if they were not perfect - would still give us inspection tools we do not currently have and therefore give us a greater chance of discovering proscribed behavior. Furthermore, an agreement would characterize missile development and export as 'cheating,' as opposed to simply unwanted conduct, thereby giving us a greater ability to leverage international pressure if needed." He concluded, "the Bush administration should realize that the risk of North Korea not fully complying with a missile agreement is far less serious than that posed by an unconstrained North Korean missile program." [Ed. Note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense's Early Bird news service for March 20.]
3. DPRK Missile Sales
The Associated Press (Barry Schweid, "ISRAEL'S SHARON SEEKS US AID BOOST," Washington, 11/20/01) reported that Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon on Tuesday told US President George W. Bush that much of Iran's ballistic missile technology comes from the DPRK. He added that Russia is also providing some of the technology to Iran.
4. US-Japan Talks
The New York Times (David E. Sanger, "U.S. AND JAPAN MAKE PLEDGE TO COLLABORATE ON ECONOMY," Washington, 03/20/01) reported that US President George W. Bush met with Japanese Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori on Monday. US officials said that the talks focused mainly on the economy, but the Japanese officials dwelled more on the security issues surrounding the PRC, Russia and the DPRK, including the DPRK's development of the Nodong missile.
The White House issued a transcript ("JOINT STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH AND PRIME MINISTER YOSHIRO MORI," Washington, 03/19/01) which stated: "President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori today reaffirmed the strength of the bilateral relationship between their two countries. The two leaders expressed their conviction that the U.S.-Japan relationship is rooted in friendship, mutual trust, and shared democratic values. They also concurred that these solid ties enable the two countries to deal with problems, such as the regrettable Ehime Maru accident. They noted that the U.S.-Japan alliance is the foundation of peace and stability in the Asia- Pacific region. Agreeing that the U.S. presence remains vital to regional security, the leaders pledged to work together to further strengthen the alliance.... President Bush and Prime Minister Mori recognized the growing threat from the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles. As part of a comprehensive strategy to meet such threats, they agreed on the importance of stepping up diplomatic efforts, including in the field of arms reduction. They also reaffirmed the need to take effective measures to address such threats, including defensive systems, strengthened proliferation controls, and counterproliferation measures. The two leaders noted with satisfaction that the United States and Japan are already conducting cooperative research on ballistic missile defense technologies. They agreed on the importance of close consultations on missile defense among allies and with other interested parties. The two leaders noted that uncertainty in the Asia-Pacific region necessitates close bilateral cooperation, including a dynamic approach to bilateral defense consultation and planning. The two leaders reaffirmed the need to continue to carry out commitments under the 1996 U.S.-Japan Joint Declaration on Security and related undertakings, such as the new Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation and the SACO process, that strengthen the alliance, and they agreed to continue to work closely on issues related to Okinawa. The leaders also agreed that strategic dialogue will be an important step in defining how the alliance can best promote stability and address new challenges that may emerge. They pledged to coordinate closely on pressing regional issues, and reaffirmed the particular importance of maintaining close consultations and coordination regarding North Korea, both bilaterally and trilaterally with the Republic of Korea. The President and Prime Minister recognized the need for the United States and Japan to continue cooperation on global issues, taking note of the important achievements this cooperation has produced thus far. Noting that their two countries are the world's largest aid donors, the leaders agreed to strengthen joint efforts to address the transnational challenges of the 21st century. The two leaders expressed their commitment to promoting United Nations Security Council reform with the goal of strengthening its effectiveness. In this context, they agreed to continue to work together to obtain for Japan a permanent seat on the Security Council."
5. US Arms Sales to Taiwan
The Associated Press (George Gedda, "TOP CHINESE OFFICIAL WARNS U.S. ON TAIWAN ARMS SALE," Washington, 03/20/01) reported that PRC Deputy Prime Minister Qian Qichen, who will meet with US President George W. Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell later this week, said Tuesday that "very serious" strains would develop in US-PRC relations if the Bush administration approves the sale of destroyers equipped with Aegis radar systems to Taiwan. Qian said that the sale would violate a 1982 agreement that says the quantity and quality of arms sales to Taiwan could not exceed that of previous years. He warned, "Just imagine, China has always stood for peaceful reunification" with Taiwan, but the Aegis sale would "change the issue into a military solution." Asked whether approval of the sale would trigger an immediate military attack on Taiwan, Qian said, "It all depends on the circumstances." Qian also reaffirmed PRC opposition to US missile defense, stating, "This is not just an issue involving China. If the global equilibrium is broken so casually, it could lead to an international crisis."
US State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher ("STATE DEPARTMENT NOON BRIEFING," USIA Transcript, 03/20/01) said that PRC Vice Premier Qian Qichen's meeting with US Secretary of State Colin Powell on March 21st will be the first time that the new administration will get a chance to discuss its relationship with the PRC in great detail. Boucher stated, "the Administration's goal at this point is to identify our goals and objectives where we converge with China and where we do not. We will communicate a strong desire to expand the common ground, but we won't shrink from discussing the differences candidly and on the basis of mutual respect." He added, "we don't consult with China on our arms sales to Taiwan; we sell to Taiwan what we think is appropriate and necessary to meet their legitimate defensive needs." He argued, "The People's Republic of China's military posture shapes Taiwan's perception of the military threat it faces. So we would encourage the Chinese to maintain a long-term perspective as the two sides on the Straits look to solve their fundamental issues."
6. US Policy toward PRC
The Washington Times carried an editorial ("CHINA POLICY CHECK," 03/20/01, 18) which said that PRC Vice Premier Qian Qichen's visit to Washington gives US President George W. Bush the opportunity to execute a "more appropriate and realistic" policy toward the PRC. The article argued that the US should implement the recommendations of a recent congressional report that said that Taiwan needs to bolster its defense. The report suggested that Taiwan and the US should set up direct communications between the US Defense Department, the Pacific Command and Taiwan's Defense Ministry, and that the two countries should train and conduct exercises together. The article stated, "Taiwan's need for better protection from China is substantiated by recent U.S. intelligence, which found that when the Chinese military simulated a sea-borne blockade against Taiwan, mock U.S. aircraft carriers did absolutely nothing, indicating the Chinese don't expect the U.S. military to defend Taiwan in such a scenario." It concluded, "Mr. Bush must demonstrate to China that the Clintonian, for-sale foreign policy era is now over." [Ed. Note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense's Early Bird news service for March 20.]
7. Alleged Russian Missile Proliferation
The Associated Press (Vladimir Isachenkov, "RUSSIAN MINISTRY CRITICIZES PENTAGON," Moscow, 03/20/01) and Reuters ("RUMSFELD IN COLD WAR TIME WARP, SAYS ANGRY MOSCOW," Moscow, 03/20/01) reported that the Russian Foreign Ministry in a statement on Tuesday dismissed a claim by US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and his deputy Paul Wolfowitz in the British Sunday Telegraph that Russia spreads missile technologies. The statement said, "It appears that top officials in the U.S. military establishment don't realize to what extent the world has changed. The world community no longer accepts Cold War logic, when military force substituted for diplomacy." It added, "The reason for these groundless, Cold War-style accusations becomes clear when these two exponents of military theory start listing the fragile 'reasons' for the creation of a national missile defense system (NMD)." It urged the US to begin a dialogue to "preserve strategic stability and find mutually acceptable solutions to the security problems that have piled up."
1. DPRK Policy towards US
Chosun Ilbo (Yoon Jong-ho, "NK DAILY CALLS FOR IMPROVED US RELATIONS," Seoul, 03/19/01) reported that the DPRK's Rodong Shinmun said Monday that it had no intention of mounting a preemptive attack on the US and that what was needed were improved relations between the DPRK and the US. The daily said that US claims of a missile threat from the DPRK were illusory. It added that during the Clinton administration there had been much dialogue with the US and the DPRK had promised that as long as missile talks continued no test fires would take place. The paper continued that the so-called "missile threat" was merely to justify the construction of a US national missile defense system and gain time for the US to do this. It urged the US to halt this tactic, which it attributed to a US bid to gain military control over Asia by gaining superiority with regards to the PRC and Russia.
2. DPRK on US War Crimes
The Korea Herald (Kang Seok-jae, "N.K. DEMANDS U.S. APOLOGY, COMPENSATION FOR WAR CRIMES," Seoul, 03/20/01) reported that the DPRK has demanded an official apology and compensation from the US for war crimes committed by US soldiers during the Korean War (1950-53). Quoting a release by the DPRK's Committee for the Peaceful Reunification of the Fatherland, the Korean Central Broadcasting Station said in a recent report that the committee also called on the US not to interfere in the reunification issue on the Korean Peninsula. Pointing out a recent discovery of the remains of hundreds of civilians at a mine near Taegu, the report said that the committee branded it "another clear evidence of mass killings of innocent Korean civilians by U.S. imperialists during the Korean War." The committee also threatened to do its utmost to have the US pay hundreds or thousands of times the price for its atrocities, according to the report.
3. Inter-Korean Ties
The Korea Herald (Chon Shi-yong, "SEOUL REMAINS UPBEAT ON INTER-KOREAN TIES," Seoul, 03/20/01) reported that ROK officials said Monday that the US government's policy is being viewed as a factor in DPRK's decision to call off ministerial talks with the ROK and slow down the pace of other inter-Korean contacts. The recent developments will not, however, have any serious impacts on detente on the Korean Peninsula, and the ROK still hopes that DPRK leader Kim Jong-il will visit Seoul in the first half of this year, the officials said. However, another official said that the DPRK might have needed some time to think of how to react to the US government's stance, adding that it may also have a little influence on Kim Jong-il's plan to visit Seoul.
The Korea Times ("KARTMAN NAMED KEDO CHIEF," Seoul, 03/19/01) reported that Charles Kartman, the US special envoy for Korean peace talks, was nominated as executive director of the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), diplomatic sources said Monday. Kartman will replace outgoing executive director Desaix Anderson, whose term expired last month. Kartman's nomination will be approved at KEDO's executive council meeting, set for March 22-23 in New York. Kartman is well versed on KEDO-related affairs, because he has served as the US member of the consortium's executive council.
5. DPRK-Russia Railway Talks
The Korea Herald ("NORTH KOREA, RUSSIA SEAL RAILWAY AGREEMENT," Tokyo, 03/20/01) reported that DPRK media has reported that talks between the railway ministers of the DPRK and Russia on linking train networks have resulted in an agreement to bolster cooperation on rail transport. The Korean Central News Agency report monitored by Radiopress News Agency in Tokyo did not elaborate on the content of the pact sealed by Russia's Nikolai Aksyonenko and the DPRK's Kim Yong-sam in Pyongyang. Russia's ITAR-Tass news agency has reported that the railway ministry would fund the reconstruction, but that Moscow hoped the ROK would convert some of the Soviet debt it holds into investment in the railway. Russian officials said that Aksyonenko will soon take part in a trilateral meeting with his ROK and DPRK counterparts to discuss details of the proposed rail link, including cost projections.
6. ROK Navy
The Korea Herald (Chon Shi-yong, "KOREA TO ADVANCE NAVAL FORCE WITH NEW STRATEGIC FLEET," Seoul, 03/17/01) reported that ROK President Kim Dae-jung said Monday that the ROK will create a new "strategic mobile fleet" consisting of destroyers, submarines and anti-submarine aircraft. "In the near future, our Navy will have a strategic mobile fleet that will safeguard our national interests and contribute to world peace in the five oceans," Kim said in the 55th commencement exercises of the Korea Naval Academy. Kim's aides and Defense Ministry officials said that the new Navy fleet will be made up of Aegis-class destroyers, next-generation submarines and anti-submarine aircraft. The ROK plans to launch its first 7,000-ton, Aegis-class destroyer in 2008. The Navy has also teamed up with Germany to build 1,800t-class "next-generation" submarines, and plans to purchase anti-submarine aircraft, including helicopters, they said. [Ed. Note: This article was included in the US Department of Defense's Early Bird news service for March 20.]
1. DPRK-Japanese Relations
People's Daily (Xie Meihua, "DPRK: JAPAN IS NOT QUALIFIED TO ENTER UNSC'S PERMANENT MEMBER," the United Nations, 03/15/01, P3) reported that on March 13, DPRK representatives to the United Nations released a communique that said that Japan, which is remilitarizing and seeking to be a military power, has no qualification to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council, which is aimed at maintaining world peace and security. The communique said that so far Japan still has not admitted, apologized for and compensated for its historical invasions and inhuman crimes. In the new century, it noted, Japan is continuing to manage to remilitarize and become a military power. It also said that Japan tries to justify and beautify its invasions by modifying textbooks to mislead the next generation. It argued that if Japan wants to become the permanent member of the UNSC, it should admit its invasion of Korea and other Asian countries, and apologize and compensate for these as well.
2. PRC-US Relations
People's Daily (Ren Yumin, "BUSH PLEDGES TO ADVANCE US-CHINA RELATIONS," Washington, D.C., 03/15/01, P3) reported that US President George W. Bush said on Tuesday that the new US administration and himself have attached great importance to US-Sino relations and he will work hard to promote ties between the two nations. Bush made the remarks when he received the letter of credentials from the PRC's newly appointed Ambassador Yang Jiechi at the Oval Office in the White House. Bush said that the PRC is a major country and will become more and more important in the future, and the improvement and development of the relationship between the US and the PRC will benefit the two countries. He noted that PRC Vice-Premier Qian Qichen's visit to the US, scheduled for March 18- 24, is crucial, and he looks forward to meeting him and having an in-depth exchange of views with him on bilateral relations. The US President said there are indeed problems between the two countries, which the American side takes seriously. But he believes that these problems will be addressed in an appropriate way and that bilateral ties will continue to make progress in the days to come.
China Daily (Hu Qihua, "US VISIT TO PUSH BILATERAL RELATIONS," New York, 03/19/01, P1) reported that on March 18, PRC Vice Premier Qian Qichen arrived in New York on a weeklong visit to the US to push forward bilateral ties. His visit marks the first official meeting between leaders of the two countries since the new US administration was formed. Qian will meet the representative figures of various committees and circles in the US. His visit is widely regarded as an opportunity for an extensive and in-depth exchange of ideas on bilateral relations and a series of important international and regional issues. PRC Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan said, "We believe that the vice- premier's visit will contribute to better mutual understanding between the two countries and to maintaining stability and cooperation in our region and in the world. Prior to Qian's visit, President George W. Bush said that he and the new US administration have attached great importance to US-China relations and will hard to promote the ties between the two nations. A number of sensitive issues could come up during Qian's visit, such as US arms sales to Taiwan and NMD program." Yang Jiechi, PRC ambassador to the US, was quoted as saying, "Handling the Taiwan question properly on the basis of the three Sino-US joint communiques is the key to a sound and steady progression of relations between the two countries." He stressed that the PRC and the US should make concerted efforts to develop a sound and stable cooperative relationship for the interests of both countries and people all over the world.
China Daily (Shao Zongwei, "CELEBRATING 'PING-PONG DIPLOMACY' 30 YEARS ON," 03/19/01, P1) reported that former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger stirred up memories batting balls on March 18 before a reception remembering "ping-pong diplomacy" after 30 years. "This is for me a very moving occasion," said Kissinger, recalling the US table tennis team's visit to China in 1971, which set the ball rolling to improve relations between the PRC and the US. At the other end of the table was PRC Vice-Premier Li Lanqing, who shared the memories along with diplomats, statesmen, scholars and sportsmen, who have all played a part over the last three decades in improving ties between the PRC and the US. Chen Haosu, president of the PRC People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, said, "The success of ping-pong diplomacy shows that people-to-people exchanges and cooperation can have a great impact on international relations, and this should be remembered and applauded even in the new century." Admitting there will be times of difficulty, Chen was confident that as long as the leaders and people of both countries continue to actively participate in exchanges and seek common ground based on mutual respect and equality, there will be great prospects for bilateral ties. "The Sino-American friendship is in the US no longer an issue between the parties," said Kissinger. "It has become the position of all key personalities in both parties." "The basis for that (Sino- US) relationship is that it is in the fundamental interests of American and Chinese people, in the fundamental interests of peace in Asia and of stability and prosperity in the world," he added.
3. Bush's Visit to PRC
China Daily (Sun Shangwu, "PREMIER ZHU MEETS REPORTERS," 03/16/01, P1) reported that PRC Premier Zhu Rongji said at a press conference on March 15 after the conclusion of the Fourth Session of the Ninth National People's Congress that US President George W. Bush is expected to visit the PRC in October this year after attending the informal leadership meeting of the APEC group, to be held in Shanghai. The two leaders, President Jiang Zemin and President Bush have kept in close touch, and communication channels are open, he added. "The message we have received directly from the US is that President Bush attaches importance to relations with China and, in his view, the Sino-US relationship is important and helpful for the shaping of the 21st century," said Zhu. Zhu believed that the visit to the PRC by President Bush will provide an excellent opportunity for the two countries to communicate better with each other.
4. US Arms Sales to Taiwan
China Daily (Xing Zhigang, "US REPORT EXCUSES INTENT TO SELL ARMS," 03/17-18/01, P1) reported that Sun Yafu, assistant director of the PRC Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council, said at a press conference on March 16 that the US media report alleging that the PRC is building up its missiles to target Taiwan has been fabricated to provide an excuse for arms sales to the island. He made the comments following a Washington Times report that a US spy satellite has detected a newly completed missile base on the PRC opposite Taiwan, saying that the report aims to "magnify the mainland's military threat to Taiwan" and "create an excuse for a certain country to sell more advanced weapons to Taiwan." Sun, also vice-president of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS), warned that "a larger sale of more advanced weapons will only stimulate the development of pro-independence forces in Taiwan and thus seriously damage cross-Straits relations." He said that due to the new Taiwan leader's refusal to accept the one-China principle and return to the 1992 agreement, the mainland has to make necessary preparations to combat separatist activities, especially those of pro-independence groups.
5. One-China Policy
China Daily (Jiang Zhuqing, "NATION OPPOSES SEPARATION OF MOTHERLAND," 03/14/01, P1) reported that PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao said on March 13 that the PRC was concerned and expressed dissatisfaction that US Secretary of State Colin Powell referred to Taiwan as the "Republic of China" in a recent speech. Zhu said that it is common knowledge that there is only one China and that Taiwan is a part of China; the government of the PRC is the only government representing China. "The US side stressed it was a pure slip of the tongue and it does not indicate any change in its support of the one-China policy. We hope the US side will make sure this kind of incident does not happen again," the spokesman said.
6. Dalai Lama's Taiwan Visit
China Daily (Jiang Zhuqing, "NATION OPPOSES SEPARATION OF MOTHERLAND," 03/14/01, P1) reported that PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao said on March 13 that both Taiwan and Tibet are inseparable parts of China's territory and the PRC Government opposes any separation of the motherland in any form. Zhu made the remarks when commenting on a report that said the Buddhist association of Taiwan would invite the Dalai Lama to visit the island on March 31. "It is the common aspiration of all Chinese people to safeguard national unity and realize the reunification of the motherland," Zhu said, "and all attempts against the trend will not work."
7. PRC View on NMD
PLA Daily (Tan Guoqi, Li Mingjiang, "PRC REITERATES OPPOSITION TO US NMD SYSTEM," 03/15/01, P5) reported that on March 14, the PRC disarmament ambassador reiterated the PRC's firm opposition to the US development of NMD system, saying that the PRC will not allow its national security to be harmed. (We oppose the US NMD programs) for two basic reasons," said Sha Zukang, director general of the Department of Arms Control and Disarmament under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, at a briefing. "Firstly, we do not believe that NMD is in the interests of international peace and security; secondly, it will compromise China's security." However, Sha stressed that the PRC "does not want to see a confrontation between China and the US over the NMD issue nor an arms race between the two countries," hoping that "existing mutual deterrence between the two countries can be preserved." "China will not allow its legitimate means of self-defense to be weakened or even taken away by any one in any way," Sha added. He expressed the PRC's willingness to further clarify its position on and concern about the NMD issue with the US side through candid dialogues. He said, "NMD is not the solution to the problem of missile proliferation. Instead, it will undermine the very foundation of the international non-proliferation regime and even stimulate further proliferation of missiles."
8. PRC-Philippines Relations
People's Daily ("PRC PROTESTS PHILIPPINE INSPECTION OF FISHING BOATS," 3/20/01, P4) reported that on March 19, PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao accused a Philippine navy crew of boarding 10 PRC fishing boats near Huangyan Island last week to conduct inspections, saying that the Philippines has no right to check PRC fishing boats in waters near Huangyan Island. Commenting on the matter that the Philippine officials confiscated fishing equipment by an excuse of engaging in an illegal activity, Zhu stressed that Huangyan Island has always been an integral part of Chinese territory, and the waters around the island are traditional fishing grounds for Chinese fishermen. Zhu said the fishing was "proper and normal". "China has made a move to negotiate with the Philippine side on this matter," he said. The spokesman also pointed out that PRC law prohibits fishing that is harmful to the marine environment and marine life, including the turtles and coral. "The Chinese Government will investigate all illegal fishing activities and will impose due punishments in accordance with the law," Zhu said.
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