NAPSNet Daily Report
tuesday, april 8, 2003

I. United States

II. Japan

Policy Forum Online:
Bush Administration's Asia Policy

Special Reports

Week in Review

South Asian Nuclear Dialogue

Nuclear Policy Project Flash

Ethical Governance Of Investment Biweekly Update

Browse Past Reports:
* Preceding Daily Report
* Daily Report Archive
* Search Daily Reports:

Email Services:
* Signup for Email Delivery
* Latest Report Emailed Now
* Send Comments
* Daily Report Credits

I. United States

next itemcontentscontacts

1. UN on DPRK Situation

BBC News ("UN TO DISCUSS NORTH KOREA CRISIS," 04/08/03) reported that the United Nations Security Council is preparing for its first meeting on the DPRK's nuclear program on Wednesday. The crisis over the DPRK's nuclear ambitions was referred to the Security Council by the UN's atomic agency in February, after Pyongyang was deemed to be in "chronic non-compliance" with international agreements on non-proliferation. The Security Council can consider a variety of options, ranging from a call for an intensification of diplomatic initiatives, to a tightening of economic sanctions. Wednesday's UN meeting Closed consultation involves all 15 Security Council members. However, analysts say the very act of holding the discussion may ratchet up tensions in North Korea, which has already condemned the meeting as a "prelude to war." On Sunday, DPRK radio said that involving the UN was an "excessive act... that destroys all efforts for dialogue, and a grave act of provocation that... is, in and of itself, no different from being a prelude to war." The meeting has also divided Security Council members. The UN envoy to the DPRK, Maurice Strong, said last week that it was likely to be "contentious."

The Associated Press (Edith M. Lederer, "UN COUNCIL FAILS ON NORTH KOREA STATEMENT," UN, 04/08/03) reported that the major Security Council powers failed to agree on a statement condemning the DPRK's nuclear program because of opposition from the PRC, diplomats said. The PRC said Tuesday the Security Council has no business discussing the DPRK's nuclear program. A day earlier, the five permanent council members - the US, Russia, the PRC, Britain and France - met at France's U.N. Mission to discuss the situation. The 15-member council plans to meet Wednesday to discuss the DPRK's withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The International Atomic Energy Agency, a U.N. body, referred the issue to council in February, saying North Korea was not complying with nuclear safeguard agreements.

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

2. DPRK on UN Action

The Associated Press (Sang-Hun Choe, "NORTH KOREA WARNS AGAINST UN ACTION," Seoul, 04/08/03) reported that the DPRK warned Tuesday that any actions taken against it when the U.N. Security Council meets to discuss the communist regime's nuclear ambitions would undermine attempts to resolve the crisis peacefully. Meanwhile, the PRC said the world body, which meets Wednesday, has no business discussing the DPRK's suspected nuclear weapons program. On Monday, PRC diplomats blocked efforts by some council members to draft a statement condemning the DPRK. "It is not appropriate for the United Nations Security Council to get involved in these issues," PRC Foreign Ministry spokesman Liu Jianchao said. "No related parties should take actions that would further complicate this matter." The council eventually could discuss imposing sanctions against the DPRK if a political solution is not found. The PRC and Russia have said they oppose sanctions. The DPRK has warned that it would regard international sanctions as a declaration of war.

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

3. ROK US Troops

Agence France-Presse ("Talks on US troop deployment under way in South Korea," Seoul, 04/08/03) and the Associated Press ("US, SOUTH KOREA BEGIN TALKS ON ALLIANCE," Seoul, 04/08/03) and BBC News ("TALKS ON US TROOPS IN SOUTH KOREA," 04/08/03) reported that the ROK and the US have begun talks on the possible reduction and relocation of US forces in the ROK. Richard Lawless, US deputy assistant secretary of defence for East Asia, and the ROK's assistant defence minister for policy, Cha Young-koo, are chairing the two-day talks, which began in Seoul on Tuesday. US Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said last month that some of the 37,000 troops could be moved further south - away from the DPRK border - sent to neighboring countries, or even sent home. The US military presence sparked several protests in the ROK last year, but nevertheless the government is reported to be alarmed by the prospect of a pull-back of US force at a time of high tension on the Korean peninsula. Lawless said in a statement on his arrival in Seoul that the US would seek to strengthen the military alliance with the ROK and develop a more equal relationship. "These talks are about ways to improve our alliance. Together we will look for ways to make it a more capable alliance, a more equal alliance, and an alliance that is less intrusive in the daily lives of the Korean people," he said. Cha was quoted by South Korea's Yonhap news agency as saying: "We will do our best to search for a 'win-win' strategy, beneficial to both countries." A ROK defence ministry official stated that the 'tripwire' forces near the border with the North should be left alone. "We are opposed to the early relocation of key front-line bases like the 2nd Infantry Division. The issue can be discussed only after the nuclear crisis is over," the official was quoted as saying.

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

4. ROK on DPRK Multilateral Talks

Agence France-Presse ("ROK FOREIGN MINISTER URGES NORTH TO BEGIN MULTILATERAL NUKE TALKS," Seoul, 04/08/03) reported that ROK Foreign Minister Yoon Young-Kwan urged the DPRK to reverse course and accept multilateral talks as the UN Security Council prepared to take up the peninsula's nuclear crisis. Yoon has been battling to persuade Pyongyang to seize the chance for multilateral talks in order to reach a settlement outside of the UN framework, thus averting any threat of sanctions and a possible slide into war. Through multilateral talks, the DPRK could obtain the security guarantees it seeks, as well as the chance for dialogue with the US it insists on, said Yoon. "Such talks may also provide an opportunity for comprehensive discussions on economic assistance," he said in comments to a National Assembly committee.

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

5. DPRK-ROK Cabinet Level Talks Cancellation

LA Times ("CABINET-LEVEL TALKS WITH NORTH CANCELED," 04/08/03) reported that cabinet-level talks between the DPRK and the ROK were abruptly canceled in a setback to efforts to get the DPRK to give up its nuclear program. The talks were canceled after the DPRK failed to confirm that the meetings would take place, the ROK's Unification Ministry said. Seoul had hoped to use the meeting to persuade its neighbor to scrap its suspected nuclear weapons program. The cancellation came ahead of a meeting Wednesday of the U.N. Security Council to discuss the North's nuclear program.

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

6. Japan on Iraq Reconstruction

The Japan Times ("PUT IRAQIS IN CHARGE SOON: ENVOY," Kuwait City, 04/08/03) reported that Japan's top diplomatic aide on Monday urged the chief of the newly formed US occupation administration of Iraq to hand over control of the country to the Iraqi people as swiftly as possible. Yukio Okamoto, diplomatic adviser to the Cabinet Secretariat, said he outlined Japan's position to retired US Army Gen. Jay Garner, who is scheduled to lead the US Defense Department's Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance in overseeing Iraq's civil administration. Okamoto, in the region to discuss the reconstruction of Iraq and surrounding countries, is the first top Japanese official to meet Garner, whose appointment was announced Monday in Washington. Japan is emphasizing the importance of U.N. involvement in Iraqi reconstruction efforts and expects control of the country to be transferred to the Iraqi people as soon as possible, Okamoto told reporters. Garner explained that the US office is eyeing a model of governance based on dividing the nation into southern, central and northern regions. Garner said the office has already appointed the chiefs of its three divisions -- reconstruction, humanitarian aid and civil administration -- and is planning to begin reconstruction assistance soon, according to Okamoto.

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

7. SARS Situation

The Washington File (Kristofer Angle, "EXPERTS SAY SARS HAS POTENTIAL TO BECOME MAJOR HEALTH THREAT," Washington DC, 04/08/03) reported that there is a very real possibility that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus could continue to spread and evolve into a "major health threat," said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "Currently there are no adequate therapies and no adequate vaccines available," Fauci told the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions. He added that this new virus is unlike anything he's seen. SARS is believed to be caused by a type of coronavirus, which is only a single strand of RNA (ribonucleic acid). This point is of particular concern among the medical community because its structure makes it very easy to mutate. "SARS has the potential to spread quickly, we've seen that," said Julie Gerberding, director for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It also has the potential to spread globally, we've seen that." Gerberding testified there is no known effective treatment for SARS. Although the antiviral drug ribavirin is being tried, "we are becoming increasingly pessimistic that the current treatment is not working," said Gerberding. The panel of experts agreed that developing a working vaccine will take over a year. Gerberding further added that the biggest challenge right now is finding an effective diagnostics test. Symptoms of SARS in its early stages are consistent with the flu. This makes identifying and isolating SARS patients very difficult.

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

8. SARS Cockroach Theory

BBC News ("SARS 'SPREAD BY COCKROACHES,'" 04/08/03) reported that experts have a new theory on how the SARS illness raced through an entire apartment block in Hong Kong. They believe that cockroaches may have carried the infection from flat to flat. The death toll from SARS - Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome - continues to mount. The cockroach theory was voiced by Hong Kong Deputy Director of Health Leung Pak-yin on Monday. He was talking about how the disease managed to spread like wildfire through an apartment block at Amoy Gardens in Kowloon. In just a few days, more than 300 new cases arose among residents of the block. The cases left health officials baffled and deeply concerned, as many of the 300 had had no direct contact with anyone who had SARS. Leung said: "The drainage may be the reason. It is possible that the cockroaches carried the virus into the homes." Scientists are still not sure exactly what causes SARS, or how easy it is to spread.

II. Japan

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

1. Japan Air Missile Defense System

The Japan Times (Nao Shimoyachi, "ISHIBA WON'T RULE OUT UPGRADE FOR PATRIOT DEFENSE SYSTEM," 04/05/03) reported that Japanese Defense Agency chief Shigeru Ishiba refused last Friday to rule out the possibility of Japan deploying the Patriot PAC-3, the latest version of the US-developed air-defense missile system. "The issue should be discussed from the viewpoint of what the nation's missile defense should be, which includes cost-effectiveness as well as how to position it in our self-defense policy and what will be most suitable (as a missile defense system)," Ishiba told a regular news conference. He added that concrete debate has not yet begun over the possible deployment of the Patriot PAC-3. Yet Ishiba voiced caution on the matter. "I think we will have to wait before making final judgment (on whether the PAC-3 will be effective in Japan's missile defense)." Yoshimitsu Tsumagari, the Air Self-Defense Forces (ASDF) chief of staff, said later in the day that the ASDF is now collecting information about the PAC-3 "for study." In 1999, Japan embarked on a joint study project with the US regarding the Navy Theater Wide Defense (NTWD) system, which is scheduled to be deployed on Aegis ships to intercept ballistic missiles. Critics warn, however, that it could be too late for Japan if it waits for these study activities to finish, given the imminent threat of a ballistic missile launch by the DPRK. The studies are expected to take at least another year or two. "The Navy Theater Defense System to be placed on Aegis ships has not yet been deployed even in the US. What is actually being used is the PAC-3," Ishiba said. "We do not altogether rule out the possibility of considering (the purchase of the PAC-3)."

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

2. Japan's Role in Iraq War

The Japan Times (Junko Takahashi, "ADVISER TO CHECK NEEDS OF IRAQ NEIGHBORS," 04/05/03) reported that Yukio Okamoto, the Japanese Cabinet's foreign policy adviser, will visit areas neighboring Iraq this week to discuss what kind of humanitarian aid Japan can offer in connection with the war there, the government announced last Friday. Okamoto will visit Kuwait, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt from Sunday to April 13 to meet with government officials, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yasuo Fukuda said. While studying the specific needs in those locations, Okamoto will also try to maintain Japan's traditionally friendly ties with Arab nations following Japan's unequivocal support for the US-led war against Iraq. Okamoto, a former career diplomat, said he is concerned about a surge in anti-US sentiment in Arab countries. "We don't see anti-Japanese sentiment yet, but I'm concerned about anti-US feelings, because we are supporting the United States," he said. Okamoto also stated that he believes aid to the Palestinian Authority will be the "core" of Japan's Middle East assistance after the war. Japan has been providing humanitarian assistance to the authority in the hope that aiding the economically weak Palestinians will help broker peace with Israel.

The Japan Times ("LAWMAKERS DON'T WANT SDF IN IRAQ WITHOUT WELCOME FROM ARAB LEADERS," 04/07/03) reported that Japan's ruling coalition said Sunday that any dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces (SDF) to help with the reconstruction of Iraq would require the approval of the war-torn nations' neighbors. Members of the three ruling parties -- the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), New Komeito and the New Conservative Party -- debated the issue with opposition lawmakers on an NHK TV program. "The SDF could and should take part if all (those concerned), including the Arab nations, welcome this," said Fumio Kyuma, acting chairman of the LDP's Policy Research Council. "But any such SDF dispatch should be considered carefully amid growing anti-US sentiment." Kazuo Kitagawa, chairman of New Komeito's Policy Research Council, said Japan should not dispatch the SDF unless Iraq's neighbors approve. He added that a UN resolution would also be a prerequisite. But opposition lawmaker Yukio Edano, the chair of the Policy Research Committee of the Democratic Party of Japan, expressed concern that sending the SDF during a de facto occupation could be extremely risky. Edano added, however, that the SDF could participate in Iraq's reconstruction under a UN framework that would not require it to use force.

next itemprev. itemcontentscontacts

3. Japan Nuclear Cycle

Kyodo ("TEPCO DECLARES NEW SPENT-FUEL SITE FEASIBLE," Aomori, 04/04/03) reported that Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO), in its final report to the government of Mutsu, Aomori Prefecture, concludes it is feasible to build a temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in the city. TEPCO based its conclusion on a survey that began last April. The survey took longer than expected due to opposition by the local fishing industry to probes of the ocean floor. In its final report, TEPCO states that such factors as weather, location and ground firmness pose no problems to the construction of the facility. TEPCO intends to submit a construction plan for the storage plant to Mutsu Mayor Masashi Sugiyama as early as this week, TEPCO officials said last Thursday.

prev. itemcontentscontacts

4. Japan's Position over Iraq's Crisis Kyodo, ("JAPAN REPEATS CALL FOR IRAQ TO SURRENDER TO COALITION," 04/07/03) reported that Iraq should surrender soon before the number of war victims grows further, Japan's Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi told reporters at his office, reiterating that Tokyo is prepared to do its utmost to help rehabilitate postwar Iraq. "It would be better for Iraqi forces to make a decision early as the situation has come to this point," Chief Cabinet Secretary Yasuo Fukuda, the top government spokesman, separately told reporters. "I hope that damage will be contained to as light as possible," Fukuda said. Reporting that between 2,000 and 3,000 Iraqi fighters were killed in the foray into Baghdad, the first since the start of the war on March 20, U.S. officials said Sunday that more incursions into the capital will follow. In a separate news conference, Senior Vice Foreign Minister Toshimitsu Motegi said Japan will consult about postwar Iraq with other countries on the basis of its recently announced five-point policy, which includes a call for sufficient UN involvement. However, Motegi refrained from commenting on recent calls by top US officials for humanitarian assistance and an interim administration led by the US and possibly Britain after they topple the government of President Saddam Hussein. Motegi classified issues of postwar Iraq into four stages -- a military-led occupation administration, a civilian administration, reconstruction led by civil organs and that led by international organs -- and called for international debate on each. "We wouldn't say whether we like each suggestion, but we would like, as the Japanese government, to discuss with other countries how the international community will steer these discussions on the basis of the five-point policy Foreign Minister (Yoriko) Kawaguchi has unveiled," he said. The policy, announced Friday, calls for maintaining Iraq's sovereignty and territorial integrity, establishing a new government through the choice of the Iraqi people, and promoting humanitarian and reconstruction assistance through sufficient UN involvement. The remaining two points in the policy call for continuous involvement by Japan in the postwar reconstruction of Iraq and its joint work with nongovernmental organizations and the private sector. 5. Japan's Position on Post-Conflict in Iraq Kyodo ("JAPAN URGES U.S. ADMINISTRATION IN IRAQ TO END ROLE QUICKLY," Kuwait, 04/08/03) reported that Japan's top diplomatic aide met in Kuwait on Monday the chief of the newly formed US occupation administration of Iraq and urged him to hand over control to the Iraqi people as swiftly as possible. Yukio Okamoto, diplomatic adviser to the Cabinet Secretariat, said he presented the Japanese position to retired US Army Gen. Jay Garner, who is to lead the U.S. Defense Department's Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA) to take charge of civil administration in Iraq. Okamoto, who is visiting the Middle East to discuss postwar reconstruction of Iraq and surrounding countries, was the first top Japanese official to meet Garner, whose appointment was announced Monday in Washington. Japan is placing an emphasis on UN involvement in Iraqi reconstruction and expects the rule of the country to be transferred to the Iraqi people themselves as early as possible, Okamoto told reporters. Garner explained that ORHA is planning to consider ways to govern Iraq by dividing the nation into southern, central and northern regions, Okamoto said. The US official also said ORHA has already appointed chiefs of its three divisions -- reconstruction, humanitarian aid and civil administration -- and is planning to start reconstruction assistance early, according to Okamoto. Okamoto, who left Japan on Sunday, also met UN officials in Kuwait. He is to also visit Jordan, Israel, Palestinian-controlled territory and Egypt in an eight-day trip to discuss with local officials how to deal with the war in Iraq and its aftermath. On Monday in Washington, US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said the US has basically put together an interim administration to run Iraq once the U.S. military topples the current Iraqi government. Rumsfeld said ORHA will take charge of civil administration in Iraq while security issues will be handled by Gen. Tommy Franks, the US commander who runs the war in Iraq.

Kyodo ("KAWAGUCHI TO TOUR EUROPE TO DISCUSS POSTWAR IRAQ," Tokyo, 04/08/03) reported that Japan's Foreign Minister Yoriko Kawaguchi will make a three-nation visit to Europe this week to discuss with her counterparts how to tackle the postwar rehabilitation and reconstruction of Iraq, Foreign Ministry officials said Tuesday. Kawaguchi is expected to meet with German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer and French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin on Thursday in Berlin and Paris, respectively, and with British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw over lunch Friday in London, the officials said. During the meetings, she will explain Japan's policy concerning the postwar rebuilding of Iraq and hear the stances of the other countries, particularly in terms of the extent of involvement by the UN in the process, they said. Ministry spokesman Jiro Okuyama said Kawaguchi will visit the three countries at this time because "direct contact and in-depth discussion is absolutely necessary for us to get the views from these countries." The assistant press secretary said Kawaguchi will present to Fischer, de Villepin and Straw Japan's recently announced five principles on the rebuilding of Iraq and seek to hear their reactions as well as "tap the temperature of each country." As part of the principles, Japan calls for "sufficient involvement" of the UN in international efforts to plan and implement humanitarian rehabilitation and reconstruction assistance to Iraq. Britain, which is taking part in the US-led war on Iraq, and France and Germany, which have both opposed the use of military force without a UN Security Council resolution explicitly authorizing it, all agree that the UN should be involved in rebuilding Iraq. However, there appear to be differences in terms of exactly how, when and to what extend the world body should take part in the process, according to the ministry officials. Senior US officials, meanwhile, have recently called for humanitarian assistance to and an interim administration of Iraq to be led by the US, and possibly Britain, after their forces topple Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. Japan's five-point policy also urges the maintenance of Iraq's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and establishment of a new administration by the Iraqi people, and says Japan will encourage nongovernmental organizations to take part in the rebuilding process. Kawaguchi is scheduled to depart from Narita airport on Wednesday night and arrive Thursday morning in Berlin for talks with Fischer. She will fly to Paris in the afternoon to meet de Villepin and then travel to London for a two-night stay there, the officials said.

The NAPSNet Daily Report aims to serve as a forum for dialogue and exchange among peace and security specialists. Conventions for readers and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are available to all recipients. For descriptions of the world wide web sites used to gather information for this report, or for more information on web sites with related information, see the collection of other NAPSNet resources.
We invite you to reply to today's report, and we welcome commentary or papers for distribution to the network.

Produced by the Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development in partnership with:

Ilmin Internationl Relations Institute
BK21 The Education and Research Corps for East Asian Studies
Department of Political Science, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Center for American Studies,
Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

International Peace Research Institute (PRIME),
Meiji Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan

Monash Asia Institute,
Monash University, Clayton, Australia

Brandon Yu:
Berkeley, California, United States

Timothy L. Savage:
Berkeley, California, United States

Kim Young-soo:
Seoul, Republic of Korea

Hibiki Yamaguchi:
Tokyo, Japan

Saiko Iwata:
Tokyo, Japan

Hiroya Takagi:
Tokyo, Japan

Peter Razvin:
Moscow, Russian Federation

Wu Chunsi:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Dingli Shen:
Shanghai, People's Republic of China

John McKay:
Clayton, Australia

Global Peace and Security Program Northeast Asia Peace and Security Network DPRK Renewable Energy Project Nuclear Policy Project Non-Nuclear NATO Network Related Nautilus Projects NAPSNet Special Reports NATO Flash Nuclear Policy Update South Asia Nuclear Dialogue Nautilus Institute Publications Policy Forum Online Signup for Nautilus Email Services Nautilus Research Kiosk Send Feedback Global Peace and Security Program Staff Nautilus Institute Home Energy, Security and Environment Globalization and Governance Youth/Pegasus Program Digital Library Search the Nautilus Site